Main Article Content
dairy by-products, erişte, β-glucan, mineral, nutrition, protein
Three different dairy by-products (whey protein concentrate powder, WPC; whey powder, WP; and buttermilk powder, BP) and ?-glucan (?G) concentrate were used in eri?te formulation to improve nutritional properties of eri?te. WPC, WP and BP were used at 0, 5, 7.5 and 10% levels and ?G was used at 0, 3, 5 and 7% levels in eri?te formulation according to (3×4×4)×2 factorial design. Some physical (colour and breaking strength), chemical (moisture, ash, protein, fat, cellulose, phytic acid and mineral contents), cooking and sensory properties of samples were investigated. Combination of ?G with dairy by-products had a decreasing effect on breaking strength of eri?te samples. ?G gave darker samples in eri?te colour. WPC, BP and ?G addition significantly increased the protein, fat and cellulose contents of the samples, respectively. Both dairy by-products and ?G increased mineral (calcium, magnesium and phosphorus) contents of the samples. The 10% dairy by-products supplementation instead of wheat flour increased cooking loss values of eri?te samples from 4.41% to 7.16%. As a result of sensory evaluation, eri?te samples containing BP gave the highest scores.
American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC), 2002. Approved methods of the AACC (10th Ed.). AACC, St. Paul, MN, USA.
Baik, B.K. and Ullrich, S.E., 2008. Barley for food: characteristics, improvement, and renewed interest. Journal of Cereal Science 48: 233-242.
Baskaran, D., Muthu Pandian, K., Gnanalaksshmi, K.S. and Ayyadurai, K., 2011a. Chemical and sensory attr?butes of noodles supplemented with skim milk powder. Tamil Nadu Journal Veterinary and Animal Sciences 7: 239-242.
Baskaran, D., Muthu Pandian, K., Gnanalaksshmi, K.S., Pugazenthmi, T.R., Jothylingam, S. and Ayyadurai, K., 2011b. Physical properties of noodles enriched with whey protein concentrate and skim milk powder. Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research 2: 127-130.
Bilgiçli, N., 2009. Effect of buckwheat flour on cooking quality and some chemical, antinutritional and sensory properties of eri?te, Turkish noodle. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 60: 70-80.
Bilgiçli, N., 2014. Effect of pseudocereal flours on some chemical properties and phytic acid content of noodle. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 6: 175-181.
Bilgiçli, N. and Temel, N.M., 2012. Sütçülük yan ürünleri kullan?larak üretilen eri?telerin baz? özellikleri üzerine farkl? kurutma s?cakl?klar?n?n etkisi, III. In: Geleneksel G?dalar Sempozyumu, May 10-12, 2012, Konya, Turkey.
Bilgin, B., Da?lio?lu, O. and Konyali, M., 2006. Functionality of bread made with pasteurized whey and/or butter-milk. Italian Journal of Food Science 18: 277-286.
Brennan, C.S. and Cleary, L.J., 2005. The potential use of cereal (1?3, 1?4)-?-D-glucans as functional food ingredients. Journal of Cereal Science 42: 1-13.
Brummer, Y., Duss, R., Wolever, T.M.S. and Tosh, S.M., 2012. Glycemic response to extruded oat bran cereals processed to vary in molecular weight. Cereal Chemistry 89: 255-261.
Chillo, S., Ranawana, D.V. and Henry, C.J.K., 2011. Effect of two barley ?-glucan concentrates on in vitro glycaemic impact and cooking quality of spaghetti. Food Science and Technology 44: 940-948.
Choo, C.L. and Aziz, N.A., 2010. Effects of banana flour and ?-glucan on the nutritional and sensory evaluation of noodles. Food Chemistry 119: 34-40.
Cleary, L. and Brennan, C., 2006. The influence of a (1?3)(1?4)-?-D-glucan rich fraction from barley on the Physico-chemical properties and in vitro reducing sugars release of durum wheat pasta. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 41: 910-918.
Erta?, N., 2014. Reutilisation of rice by-product: study on the effect of rice bran addition on physical, chemical and sensory properties of eri?te. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 6: 249-255.
Erta?, N., Sert, D., Demir, M.K. and Elgün, A., 2009. Effect of whey concentrate addition on the chemical, nutritional and sensory properties of tarhana (a Turkish fermented cereal-based food). Food Science and Technology Research 15: 51-58.
Eyidemir, E. and Hayta, M., 2009. The effect of apricot kernel flour incorporation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of noodle. African Journal of Biotechnology 8: 85-90.
Hallfrisch, J., Schofield, D.J. and Behall, K.M., 2003. Physiological responses of men and women to barley and oat extracts (NutrimX). II. Comparison of glucose and insulin responses. Cereal Chemistry 80: 80-83.
Haugh, W. and Lantzsch, H. J., 1983. Sensitive method for rapid determination of phytatein cereals and cereals products. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 34: 1423-1426.
Havrlentová, M., Petruláková, Z., Burgárová, A., Gago, F., Hlinková, A. and Šturdík, E., 2011. Cereal ?-glucans and their significance for the preparation of functional foods – a review. Czech Journal of Food Science 29: 1-14.
Izydorczyk, M.S., Lagassé, S.L., Hatcher, J.E., and Rossnagel, B.G., 2005. The enrichment of Asian noodles with fiber-rich fractions derived from roller milling of hull-less barley. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 85: 2094-2104.
Kadharmestan, C., Baik, B.K. and Czuchajowska, Z., 1998. Whey protein concentrate treated with heat or high hydrostatic pressure in wheat-based products. Cereal Chemistry 75: 762-766.
Kahvec?, B. and Özkaya, H., 1989. Farkl? oranlarda ekmeklik bu?day kat?lm?? baz? durum çe?itlerinin makarnal?k kalitesi üzerine ara?t?rmalar. Do?a 13: 1033-1047.
Kilara, A., 1994. Whey protein functionality. In: Hettiarachchy, N.S. and Ziegler, G.R. (eds.) Protein functionality in food systems. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, pp. 325-351.
Knuckles, B.E., Hudson, C.A., Chiu, M.M. and Sayre, R.N., 1997. Effect of ?-glucan barley fractions in high-fiber bread and pasta. Cereal Food World 42: 94-99.
Lee, C.H., Cho, J.K., Lee, S.J., Koh, W., Park, W. and Kim, C.H., 2002. Enhancing ?-carotene content in Asian noodles by adding pumpkin powder. Cereal Chemistry 79: 593-595.
Madenci, A.B. and Bilgiçli, N., 2014. Effect of whey protein concentrate and buttermilk powders on rheological properties of dough and bread quality. Journal of Food Quality 37: 117-124.
Madenci, B., Türker, S. and Bilgiçli, N., 2012. Baz? sütçülük yan ürünlerinin lava? ekme?inin fiziksel, kimyasal ve duyusal özelliklerine etkisi, III. In: Geleneksel G?dalar Sempozyumu, May 10-12, 2012, Konya, Turkey, pp. 309-312.
Mikušová, L., Ciesarová, Z., Hromádková, Z., Valachovišová, M., Penesová, A., Kajaba, I., Holubková, A., Kraj?íová, ?., Mislovišová, D., Bobrík, M. and Šturdík, E., 2014. Novel cereal fibre drink as a tool for civilisation disease prevention. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 6: 357-366.
Oh, N.H., Seib, P.A. and Chung, D.S., 1985. Noodles III. Effects of processing variables on quality characteristics of dry noodle. Cereal Chemistry 62: 437-440.
Özkaya, B., Özkaya, H. and Buyukikiz, E., 2001. The cooking properties of eriste (Turkish noodle) produced by traditional methods. Getreide Mehl und Brot 55: 120-125.
Özkaya, H. and Kahvec?, B., 1990. Tah?l ve Ürünleri Analiz Yöntemleri. G?da Teknolojisi Derne?i Yay?nlar?, Ankara, Turkey.
Prabhasankar, P., Rajiv, J., Indrani, D. and Venkateswara, R.G., 2007. Influence of whey protein concentrate, additives, their combinations on the quality and microstructure of vermicelli made from Indian T. Durum wheat variety. Journal of Food Engineering 80: 1239-1245.
Rayas-Duarte, P., Mock, C.M. and Satterlee, L.D., 1996. Quality of spaghetti containing buckwheat, amaranth, and lupin flours. Cereal Chemistry 73: 381-387.
Resmini, P. and Pagani, M.A., 1983. Ultrastructure studies of pasta. Food Microstructure 2: 1-12.
Secchi, N., Stara, G., Anedda, R., Campus, M., Piga, A., Roggio, T. and Catzeddu, P., 2011. Effectiveness of sweet ovine whey powder in increasing the shelf life of Amaretti cookies. Food Science and Technology 44: 1073-1078.
Sodini, I., Morin, P., Olabi, A. and Jiménez-Flores, R., 2006. Compositional and functional properties of buttermilk: a comparison between sweet, sour and whey butter-milk. Journal of Dairy Science 89: 525-536.
Tudorica, C.M., Kuri, V. and Brennan, C.S., 2002. Nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of dietary fiber enriched pasta. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 50: 347-356.
Wolever, T.M.S., Tosh, S.M., Gibbs, A.L., Brand-Miller, J., Duncan, A.M., Hart, V., Lamarche, B., Thomson, B.A., Duss, R. and Wood, P.J., 2010. Physicochemical properties of oat ?-glucan influence its ability to reduce serum LDL cholesterol in humans: a randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 92: 723-732.
Wong, P.Y.Y. and Kitts, D.D., 2003. A comparison of the buttermilk solids functional properties to non-fat dried milk, soy protein isolate, dried egg white and egg yolk powders. Journal of Dairy Science 86: 746-754.
Wood, P.J., 2002. Relationships between solution properties of cereal ?-glucans and physiological effects (a review). Trends in Food Science & Technology 13: 313-320.
Wood, P.J., 2007. Cereal ?-glucans in diet and health. Journal of Cereal Science 46: 230-238.
Yalçin, S., 2005. Glutensiz eri?te üretimi üzerine bir ara?t?rma. MSc thesis, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara, Turkey.
Yilmaz, M.T., Karaman, S., Cankurt, H., Kayacier, A. and Sagdic, O., 2011. Steady and dynamic oscillatory shear rheological properties of ketchup-processed cheese mixtures: effect of temperature and concentration. Journal of Food Engineering 103:197-210.
Yilmaz, M.T., Sert, D. and Karakaya, M., 2010. The effect of interaction on the functional properties of dairy powder solution. The Australian Journal of Dairy Technology 65: 15-22.
Zekoviç, D.B., Kwiatkowski, S., Vrviç, M.M., Jakovljeviç, D. and Moran, C.A., 2005. Natural and modified (1?3)-?-D-glucans in health promotion and disease alleviation. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology 25: 205-230.