Investigation of meat species adulteration in beef-based meat products via real-time PCR in Türkiye

Main Article Content

Hayrunnisa Özlü
Burak Çevik
Mustafa Atasever
Muhammet Furkan Sarıalioğlu
Betül Alkan Polat

Keywords

adulteration, meat species, mislabeling, real-time PCR

Abstract

The addition of poultry and other meats to products made from 100% beef is prohibited in Türkiye. In addition, in Türkiye, where the majority of the population is Muslim, the use of pork and single-hoofed meat is a matter of concern due to religious reasons. This study utilized a sensitive and specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to identify the different meat species in meat products marketed as 100% beef and sold in the eastern Türkiye provinces of Erzurum, Erzincan, Kars, Ağrı, and Bingöl. The real-time PCR method was used to investigate the presence of DNA specific to six animal species (chicken, turkey, pork, horse, donkey, and camel). The analysis revealed no traces of horse, donkey, camel, or pork meat in any of the 100 samples of Turkish fermented sausage (sucuk), salami, and sausage. Contrary to the product labels claiming 100% beef content, poultry DNA residues were identified in a salami sample from Erzincan, while turkey DNA residues were found in sucuk samples from both Ağrı and Kars. The study’s findings reveal that contrary to label information, various types of meat can be present in meat products sold by both trademarked and local butchers. Consequently, this paper emphasizes the need for routine checks on market-sold products to ensure they comply with legislation and avoid consumer deception. Furthermore, the Real-Time PCR method, with its rapid results and high sensitivity, is deemed beneficial for food safety, consumer rights, and the prevention of unfair competition.

Abstract 463 | PDF Downloads 593 HTML Downloads 5 XML Downloads 19

References

Afifa khatun, M., Hossain, A., Hossain, M.S., Kamruzzaman Munshi, M. and Huquem, R., 2021. Detection of species adulteration in meat products and Mozzarella-type cheeses using duplex PCR of mitochondrial cyt b gene: a food safety concern in Bangladesh. Food Chemistry: Molecular Sciences 2: 100017. 10.1016/J.FOCHMS.2021.100017

Ali, M.E., Hashim, U., Mustafa, S., Man, Y.B.C., Latif, M.A., Islam, K.N., Bakar, M.Z.B.A. and Rahman, M.M., 2012. TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction for the determination of pork adulteration in meat nuggets. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 51: 1–12. 10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.02.031

Ayaz, Y., Ayaz, N.D., Aksoy, M. and Kaplan, Y.Z., 2013. Real-time PCR tekniği ile çeşitli et ürünlerinde tavuk ve sığır eti oranlarının kantitatif tayini. Etlik Veteriner Mikrobiyoloji Dergisi 24(2): 41–48.

Chuah, L., He, X.B., Effarizah, M.E., Syahariza, Z.A., Shamila-Syuhada, A.K. and Rusul, G., 2016. Mislabelling of beef and poultry products sold in Malaysia. Food Control 62: 157–164. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.10.030

Derinöz, A.N., Çufaoğlu, G. and Ayaz, N.D., 2021. Et türü tayininde kullanılan yöntemler. Akademik Et ve Süt Kurumu Dergisi 1: 8–18.

Doosti, A., Ghasemi Dehkordi, P. and Rahimi, E., 2014. Molecular assay to fraud identification of meat products. Journal of Food Science and Technology 51(1): 148–152. 10.1007/s13197-011-0456-3

Du, J., Gan, M., Xie, Z., Zhou, C., Li, M., Wang, M., Dai, H., Huang, Z., Chen, L., Zhao, Y., Niu, L., Zhang, S., Guo, Z., Wang, J., Li, X., Shen, L. and Zhu, L., 2023. Current progress on meat food authenticity detection methods. Food Control 152: 109842. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2023.109842

Fengou, L.C., Tsakanikas, P. and Nychas, G.J.E., 2021. Rapid detection of minced pork and chicken adulteration in fresh, stored and cooked ground meat. Food Control 125: 108002. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2021.108002

Gecaj, R.M., Muji, S., Ajazi, F.C., Berisha, B., Kryeziu, A. and Ismaili, M., 2021. Investigation of pork meat in chicken-and beef-based commercial products by ELISA and real-time PCR sold at retail in Kosovo. Czech Journal of Food Sciences 39(5): 368–375. 10.17221/164/2020-CJFS

Gholamnezhad, P., Ahari, H., Nikbakht Brujeni, G., Anvar, S.A.A. and Motallebi, A., 2021. Real-time PCR high-resolution melting analysis for the species identification of meat products: focusing on food safety and detection of meat adulterations. Thrita 10(1): e112550. 10.5812/thrita.112550

Hendrickson, O.D., Zvereva, E.A., Dzantiev, B.B. and Zherdev, A.V., 2021. Sensitive lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of pork additives in raw and cooked meat products. Food Chemistry 359: 129927. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129927

Hossain, M.A.M., Abidin, S.A.S.Z., Bujang, A., Taib, M.N., Sagadevan, S., Johan, M.R. and Nizar, N.N.A., 2023. TaqMan multiplex qPCR for detecting animal species in meat and meat products: development, recent advances and future prospects, Food Control 150: 109761. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2023.109761

Hossain, M.A.M., Ali, M.E., Sultana, S., Asing Bonny, S.Q., Kader, M.A. and Rahman, M.A., 2017. Quantitative tetraplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay with TaqMan probes discriminates cattle, buffalo, and porcine materials in food chain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 65(19): 3975–3985. 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b00730

Inguglia, E.S., Song, Z., Kerry, J.P., O’Sullivan, M.G. and Hamill, R.M., 2023. Addressing clean label trends in commercial meat processing: strategies, challenges and insights from consumer perspectives. Foods 12: 2062. 10.3390/foods12102062

Kane, D.E. and Hellberg, R.S., 2016. Identification of species in ground meat products sold on the U.S. commercial market using DNA based methods. Food Control 59: 158–163. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.05.020

Kaya, M., Arıkan Asan, A. and Başıaçık Karakoç, Ş., 2019. Bazı ticari kitler kullanılarak et ürünlerindeki tavuk ve sığır eti miktarının belirlenmesi. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi 23: 52–58. 10.19113/sdufenbed.442199

Kesmen, Z., Yetim, H. and Sahin, F., 2010. Identification of different meat species used in sucuk production by PCR assay. Gıda 35(2): 81–87.

Kesmen, Z., Yetiman, A.E., Şahin, F. and Yetim, H., 2012. Detection of chicken and turkey meat in meat mixtures by using real-time PCR assays. Journal of Food Science 77(2): C167–C173. 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02536.x

Keyvan, E., İplıkçıoğlu Çıl, G., Çinar Kul, B., Bılgen, N. and Şireli, U.T., 2017. Identification of meat species in different types of meat products by PCR. Ankara Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi 64(4): 261–266. 10.1501/vetfak_0000002808

Leroy, F., Abraini, F., Beal, T., Dominguez-Salas, P., Gregorini, P., Manzano, P., Jason Rowntree, J. and Vliet S.V., 2022. Animal board invited review: animal source foods in healthy, sustainable, and ethical diets–an argument against drastic limitation of livestock in the food system. Animal 16(3): 100457. 10.1016/j.animal.2022.100457

Maritha, V., Harlina, P.W., Musfiroh, I., Gazzali, A.M. and Muchtaridi, M., 2022. The application of chemometrics in metabolomic and lipidomic analysis data presentation for halal authentication of meat products. Molecules 27: 7571. 10.3390/molecules27217571

Momtaz, M., Bubli, S.Y. and Khan, M.S., 2023. Mechanisms and health aspects of food adulteration: a comprehensive review. Foods 12(1): 199. 10.3390/foods12010199

Murugaiah, C., Noor, Z.M., Mastakim, M., Bilung, L.M., Selamat, J. and Radu, S., 2009. Meat species identification and Halal authentication analysis using mitochondrial DNA. Meat Science 83: 57–61. 10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.03.015

Naaum, A.M., Shehata, H.R., Chen, S., Li, J., Tabujara, N., Awmack, D., Lutze-Wallace, C. and Hanner, R., 2018. Complementary molecular methods detect undeclared species in sausage products at retail markets in Canada. Food Control 84: 339–344. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.07.040

Nizar, N.N.A., Hossain, M., Sultana, S., Ahamad, M.N., Johan, M.R. and Ali, M.E., 2019. Quantitative duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay with TaqMan probe detects and quantifies Crocodylus porosus in food chain and traditional medicines. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A 36(6): 825–835. 10.1080/19440049.2019.1584407

Perestam, A.T., Fujisaki, K.K., Nava, O. and Hellberg, R.S., 2017. Comparison of real-time PCR and ELISA-based methods for the detection of beef and pork in processed meat products. Food Control 71: 346–352. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.07.017

Premanandh, J., 2013. Horse meat scandal–a wake-up call for regulatory authorities. Food Control 34(2): 568–569. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.05.033

Rohman, A., Orbayinah, S., Hermawan, A., Sudjadi, S., Windarsih, A. and Handayani, S., 2022. The development of real-time polymerase chain reaction for identification of beef meatballs. Applied Food Research 2(2): 100148. 10.1016/j.afres.2022.100148

Roobab, U., Khan, A.W., Lorenzo, J.M., Arshad, R.N., Chen, B.-R., Zeng, X.-A., Bekhit, A.E., Suleman, R. and Aadil, R.M. 2021. A systematic review of clean-label alternatives to synthetic additives in raw and processed meat with a special emphasis on high-pressure processing (2018–2021). Food Research International 150: 110792. 10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110792

Seddaoui, N. and Amine, A., 2021. Smartphone-based competitive immunoassay for quantitative on-site detection of meat adulteration. Talanta 230: 122346. 10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122346

Song, Q., Chen, Y., Zhao, L., Ouyang, H. and Song, J., 2019. Monitoring of sausage products sold in Sichuan Province, China: a first comprehensive report on meat species’ authenticity determination. Scientific Reports 9: 19074. 10.1038/s41598-019-55612-x

Szemethy, D., Mihalik, B., Frank, K., Nagy, T., Újváry, D., Kusza, S., Szemethy, L., Barta, E. and Stéger, V., 2021. Development of wild boar species-specific DNA markers for a potential quality control and traceability method in meat products. Food Analytical Methods 14(1): 18–27. 10.1007/s12161-020-01840-1

TFC, 2017. Turkish food codex regulation on labeling and provision of food information to consumers. Official Gazette Number: 29960, 26 January 2017, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Ankara. Available at: 25.06.2023. https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2017/01/20170126M1-6.htm

TFC, 2019. Turkish food codex notification on meat, prepared meat mixtures, and meat products. Notification No: 2018/52. 29 January 2019, Official Gazette Number: 30670, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Ankara. Available at: 25.06.2023. https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2019/01/20190129-4.htm

Ulca, P., Balta, H., Çağin, I. and Senyuva, H.Z., 2013. Meat species identification and halal authentication using PCR analysis of raw and cooked traditional Turkish foods. Meat Science 94(3): 280–284. 10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.03.008

Wang, W., Liu, J., Zhang, Q., Zhou, X. and Liu, B., 2019. Multiplex PCR assay for identification and quantification of bovine and equine in minced meats using novel specific nuclear DNA sequences. Food Control 105: 29–37. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.05.016

Wu, W., Zhang, A., van Klinken, R.D., Schrobback, P. and Muller, J.M., 2021. Consumer trust in food and the food system: a critical review. Foods 10(10): 2490. 10.3390/foods10102490

Xu, R., Wei, S., Zhou, G., Ren, J., Liu, Z., Tang, S., Cheung, P.C.K. and Wu. X., 2018. Multiplex TaqMan locked nucleic acid real-time PCR for the differential identification of various meat and meat products. Meat Science 137: 41–46. 10.1016/j.meatsci.2017.11.003

Yörük, N.G., 2021. A comparison of ELISA and real-time PCR kits for meat species identification analysis. European Food Research and Technology 247(10): 2421–2429. 10.1007/s00217-021-03803-0