The effects of cooking time and sugar on total phenols, hydroxymethylfurfural and acrylamide content of mulberry leather (pestil)

Main Article Content

H. Boz
M.M. Karaoğlu
G. Kaban


acrylamide, hydroxymethylfurfural, glucose syrup, mulberry pestil


The effects of glucose syrup (0, 20, and 40%), sucrose syrup (0, 20, and 40%) and cooking time (10 and 20 min) on the chemical characteristics of mulberry pestil were investigated by replacing glucose syrup and sucrose syrup with mulberry syrup. Changes in glucose and sucrose syrup concentrations significantly affected invert sugar, sucrose and total soluble solids content of mulberry pestils. The invert sugar values of mulberry pestil increased with the addition of glucose syrup, but decreased with the addition of sucrose syrup. An increase in levels of sucrose or glucose syrup resulted in an increase of the lightness of colour values; however, an increase in cooking time reduced the lightness of colour of mulberry pestil. When sucrose and glucose syrup were added, an increase in pH values of samples but a reduction in titratable acidity was detected. Replacing glucose syrup with mulberry syrup in the formulations resulted in a decrease in the amount of hydroxymethylfurfural and acrylamide formed in mulberry pestils. The reducing effect of glucose syrup on hydroxymethylfurfural and acrylamide formation was much greater than the effect of sucrose syrup.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 122 | PDF Downloads 147


Akbulut, M. and Bilgiçli, N., 2010. Effects of different pekmez (fruit molasses) types used as a natural sugar source on the batter rheology and physical properties of cakes. Journal of Food Process Engineering33: 272-286.
Aksu, ?., Özdemir, F. and Nas, S., 1997. The quality characteristics of marmalades produced at different sugar/pulp ratios by using rose hips (Rosa spp.) pulp obtained by application of preheating during process. Journal of Engineering Science3: 243-248.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 2000. Method 920.183. In: Official methods of analysis (17th Ed.). AOAC, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
yaz, F.A., Torun, H., Ayaz, S., Correia, P.J., Alaiz, M., Sanz, C., Grúz, J. and Strnad, M., 2007. Determination of the chemical composition of Anatolian carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua L.): sugars, amino and organic acids, minerals and phenolic compounds. Journal of Food Quality30: 1040-1055.
Bala, B.K., Ashraf, M.A., Uddin, M.A. and Janjai, S., 2005. Experimental and neural network prediction of the performance of a solar tunnel drier for drying jackfruit bulbs and leather. Journal of Food Process Engineering28: 552-566.
Boonchiangma, S., Chanthai, S., Srijaranai, S. and Srijaranai, S., 2011. Chemical compositions and non-enzymatic browning compounds of Thai honey: a kinetic study. Journal of Food Process Engineering34: 1584-1596.
Cagindi, O. and Otles, O., 2005. Comparison of some properties on the different types of pestil: a traditional product in Turkey. International Journal of Food Science and Technology40: 897-901.
Capuano, E. and Fogliano, V., 2011. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF): a review on metabolism, toxicity, occurrence in food and mitigation strategies. LWT-Food Science and Technology 44: 793-810.
Cemero?lu, B., 1992. Basic analysis methods in fruit and vegetable processing industry [in Turkish]. Biltav Press, Ankara, Turkey.
Dogan, M. and Toker, O.S., 2015. Hydroxymethylfurfural content and physicochemical properties of the caramel samples enriched with different dietary fibres. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 7: 277-285.
Erenturk, S., Gulaboglua, M.S. and Gultekin, S., 2004. The thin-layer drying characteristics of rosehip. Biosystems Engineering89: 159-166.
Gökmen, V., 2014. A perspective on the evaluation of safety risks in thermal processing of foods with an example for acrylamide formation in biscuits. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 6: 319-325.
Gökmen, V. and Mogol, B.A., 2010. Computer vision-based image analysis for rapid detection of acrylamide in heated foods. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 2: 203-207.
Gökmen, V., ?enyuva, H.Z., Acar, J. and Sario?lu, K., 2005. Determination of acrylamide in potato chips and crisps by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A 1088: 193-199.
Gujral, H.S. and Khanna, G., 2002. Effect of skim milk powder, soy protein concentrate and sucrose on the dehydration behaviour, texture, color and acceptability of mango leather. Journal of Food Engineering55: 343-348.
Gujral, H.S., Oberoi, D.P.S., Singh, S. and Gera, M., 2013. Moisture diffusivity during drying of pineapple and mango leather as affected by sucrose, pectin, and maltodextrin. International Journal of Food Properties 16: 359-368.
Gulcin, I., Oktay, M., Küfrevioglu, I. and Aslan, A., 2002. Determination of antioxidant activity of lichen Cetrariais landica (L) Ach. Journal of Ethnopharmacology79(3): 325-329.
Hojjatpanah, G., Fazaeli, M. and Emam-Djomeh, Z., 2011. Effects of heating method and conditions on the quality attributes of black mulberry (Morus nigra) juice concentrate. International Journal of Food Science and Technology46: 956-962.
Kaya, S. and Kahyaoglu, T., 2005. Thermodynamic properties and sorption equilibrium of pestil (grape leather). Journal of Food Engineering71: 200-207.
Kus, S., Gogus, F. and Eren, S., 2005. Hydroxymethyl furfural content of concentrated food products. International Journal of Food Properties 8: 367-375.
Lingnert, H., Grivas, S., Jägerstad, M., Skog, K., Törnqvist, M. and Per Aman, P., 2002. Acrylamide in food: mechanisms of formation and influencing factors during heating of foods. Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition46: 159-172.
Maskan, M., Kaya, S. and Maskan, M., 2002. Effect of concentration drying processes on color change of grape juice and leather (pestil). Journal of Food Engineering54: 75-80.
Mestdagh, F., Maertens, J., Cucu, T., Delporte, K., Peteghem, C.V. and Meulenaer, B.D., 2008. Impact of additives to lower the formation of acrylamide in a potato model system through pH reduction and other mechanisms. Food Chemistry107: 26-31.
Ölmez, H., Tuncay, F., Öcan, N. and Demirel, S., 2008. A survey of acrylamide levels in foods from the Turkish market. International Journal of Food Science and Technology21: 564-568.
Phimpharian, C., Jangchud, A., Jangchud, K., Therdthai, N., Prinyawiwatkul, W. and Kyoon No, H., 2011. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory optimisation of pineapple leather snack as affected by glucose syrup and pectin concentrations. International Journal of Food Science and Technology1: 1-10.
Rada-Mendoza, M., Olano, A. and Villamiel, M., 2002. Determination of hydroxymethylfurfural in commercial jams and in fruit-based infant foods. Food Chemistry79: 513-516.
Robarge, T., Phillips, E. and Conoley, M., 2003. Analysis of Acrylamide in food by GC-MS. The applications book. Thermo Electron Corporation Press, Austin, TX, USA.
Tardiff, G.T., Gargas, M.L., Kirman, C.R., Carson, M.L. and Sweeney, L.M., 2010. Estimation of safe dietary intake levels of acrylamide for humans. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48: 658-667.
Threlfall, R., Morris, J. and Meullenet, J.F., 2007. Product development and nutraceutical analysis to enhance the value of dried fruit. Journal of Food Quality30: 552-566.
Vinci, R.M., Mestdagh, F. and De Meulenaer, B., 2012. Acrylamide formation in fried potato products – Present and future, a critical review on mitigation strategies. Food chemistry133: 1138-1154.
Zhang, Y., Fang, H. and Zhang, Y., 2008. Study on formation of acrylamide in asparagines-sugar microwave heating systems using UPLC-MS/MS analytical method. Food Chemistry108: 542-550.