Main Article Content
germination/sprouting, soybean, raw material, food additive, bioactive components, short-term germination
Seed germination (sprouting) offers a broad spectrum of quality changes to the design of novel food components/additives/products with improved composition, enhanced nutritional value and/or with dedicated functional properties compared to ungerminated seed. This review summarises the general physiological and compositional changes that occur during the germination process in soybean seed. The changing pattern of macro- and micro components, different bioactive compounds and anti-nutritive factors are highlighted and their nutritional and functional characteristics summarised. Furthermore, the benefits of a strictly controlled short-term germination process (germination time <48 h) are summarised and the potential of an innovative sprouting procedure is discussed. Short-term germination technology and the processed bean materials provide a special quality seed product as raw material or additive, which can be used in a wide variety of sectors, such as the food industry, households, and public and hospital catering. It can also be applied in the healthy and functional food production segment.
Adeghate, E. and Ponery, S.A., 2002. GABA in the endocrine pancreas: cellular localization and function in normal and diabetic rats. Tissue and Cell 34: 1-6.
Alam, I., Sharmin, S.A., Kim, K.H., Yang, J.K., Choi, M.S. and Lee, B.H., 2010. Proteome analysis of soybean roots subjected to short-term drought stress. Plant and Soil 333: 491-505.
Albertazzi, P. and Purdie, D., 2002. The nature and utility of the phytoestrogens: a review of the evidence. Maturitas 42: 173-185.
American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC), 2001. The definition of dietary fiber: report of the Dietary Fiber Definition Committee to the Board of Directors of the American Association of Cereal Chemists. Cereal Foods World 46: 112-126.
Andriska, V. and Ponyi, I., 1989. Optimization of efficiency, competitiveness and profitability in the field growing of plants. Vol. II. Sunflower and soybean. OMIKK, Budapest, Hungary.
Astwood, J.D., Leach, J.N. and Fuchs, R.L., 1996. Stability of food allergens to digestion in vitro. Nature Biotechnology 14: 1269-1273.
Baltes, W., 1989. Food chemistry. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
Barcelos, F.M.P., Vilas-Boas, E.V.B. and Lima, M.A.C., 2002. Nutritional aspects of combined sprouts of soybean and corn. Ciências Agrotécnica 26: 817-825.
Bassett, N.M. and Sammán, C.N., 2010. Folate content and retention in selected raw and processed foods. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición 60: 298-305.
Bau, H.M., Villaume, C., Nicolas, J.P. and Méjean, L., 1997. Effect of germination on chemical composition, biochemical constituents and antinutritional factors of soya bean (Glycine max) seeds. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 73: 1-9.
Belitz, H.D. and Grosch, W., 1985. Textbook of food chemistry. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
Bewley, J.D. and Black, M., 1994. Seeds, physiology of development and germination. Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA.
Bogomolov, A.A., Bikbov, T.M., Matveev, Y.I. and Manakov, M.N., 1997. Conformational changes in soybean (Glycine max) storage proteins during germination. Molecular Biology 31: 77-81.
Bove, J., Jullien, M. and Grappin, P., 2002. Functional genomics in the study of seed germination. Genome Biology 3: 1002.1-1002.5.
Breiteneder, H. and Ebner, C., 2000. Molecular and biochemical classification of plant-derived food allergens. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 106: 27-36.
Briat, J.F., Lobréaux, S., Grignon, N. and Vansuyt, G., 1999. Regulation of plant ferritin synthesis: how and why. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 56: 155-166.
Brown, J.P., 1988. Hydrolysis of glycosides and esters. In: Rowland, I.R. (ed.) Role of the gut flora in toxicity and cancer. Academic Press Inc., San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 109-144.
Burks Jr., A.W., Brooks, J.R. and Sampson, H.A., 1988. Allergenicity of major component proteins of soybean determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting in children with atopic dermatitis and positive soy challenges. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 81: 1135-1142.
Carlsson, L., Nyström, L.E., Sundkvist, I., Markey, F. and Lindberg, U., 1977. Actin polymerizability is influenced by profilin, a low molecular weight protein in non-muscle cells. Journal of Molecular Biology 115: 465-483.
Carrao-Panizzi, M.C. and Erhan, S.Z., 2007. Environmental and genetic variation of soybean tocopherol content under Brazilian growing conditions. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 84: 1182-1130.
Catsimpoolas, N., Campbell, T.G. and Meyer, E.W., 1968. Immunochemical study of changes in reserve proteins of germinating soybean seeds. Plant Physiology 43: 799-805.
Chen, H.L. and Pan, H.S., 1977. Decrease of phytates (antinutritive factors) during germination of pea seeds (Pisum sativum) (compared with those of soybean). Nutrition Reports International 16: 125-131.
Chitra, U., Singh, U. and Rao, P.V., 1996. Phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility, dietary fiber, and minerals of pulses as influenced by processing methods. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 49: 307-316.
Coward, L., Barnes, N.C., Setchell, K.D.R. and Barnes, S., 1993. Genistein, daidzein, and their beta-glycoside conjugates – antitumor isoflavones, in soybean foods from American and Asian diets. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 41: 1961-1967.
Dhakal, K.H., Jeong, Y.S., Lee, J.D., Baek, I.Y., Ha, T.J. and Hwang, Y.H., 2009. Fatty acid composition in each structural part of soybean seed and sprout. Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology 12: 97-101.
Divi, L.R., Chang, H.C. and Doerge, D.R., 1997. Anti-thyroid isoflavones from soybean: isolation, characterization, and mechanisms of action. Biochemical Pharmacology 54: 1087-1096.
Donangelo, C.M., Trugo, L.C., Trugo, N.M.F. and Eggum, B.O., 1995. Effect of germination of legume seeds on chemical composition and on protein and energy utilization in rats. Food Chemistry 53: 23-27.
Dornbos Jr., D.L. and Mullen, R.E., 1992. Soybean seed protein and oil contents and fatty acid composition adjustments by drought and temperature. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 69: 228-231.
Duthie, S.J., Narayanan, S., Sharp, L., Little, J., Basten, G. and Powers, H., 2004. Folate, DNA stability and colorectal neoplasia. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 63: 571-578.
Dutton, H.J. and Mounts, T.L., 1966. Desaturation of fatty acids in seeds of higher plants. Journal of Lipid Research 7: 221-225.
Egli, I., Davidsson, L., Juillerat, M.A., Barclay, D. and Hurrell, R.F., 2006. The influence of soaking and germination on the phytase activity and phytic acid content of grains and seeds potentially useful for complementary feeding. Journal of Food Science 67: 3484-3488.
Elson, M. and Haas, M.D., 2013. Vitamin E (tocopherol). Global healing center natural health and organic living, Houston, TX, USA. Available at: http://tinyurl.com/7nq4fed.
Erdman Jr., J.W. and Fordyce, E.J., 1989. Soy products and the human diet. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49: 725-737.
Eskin, N.A.M. and Wiebe, S., 1983. Changes in phytase activty and phytate during germination of 2 fababean cultivars. Journal of Food Science 48: 270-271.
Fitorex, 2008. New food-industrial product with plant origin and goods containing it. Hungarian patent. Magyar Szabadalom, szabadalmi szám: P 08 00665, Hungary.
Fitorex, 2014. YASO, Soy like never before. Budapest, Hungary. Available at: http://www.yaso.hu/.
Guardiola, L.J. and Sutcliffe, F.J., 1971. Mobilization of phosphorus in the cotyledons of young seedlings of the garden pea (Pisum sativumL.). Annals of Botany 35: 809-823.
Graeber, K., Nakabayashi, K., Miatton, E., Leubner-Metzger, G. and Soppe, J.J.W., 2012. Molecular mechanisms of seed dormancy. Plant, Cell and Environment 35: 1769-1786.
Grappin, P., Bouinot, D., Sotta, B., Miginiac, E. and Jullien, M., 2000. Control of seed dormancy in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia: a post-imbibition abscisic acid synthesis imposes dormancy maintenance. Planta 210: 279-285.
Grela, E.R. and Günter, K.D., 1995. Fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of some legume seeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology 52: 325-331.
Hajós, Gy., 2008. Food Chemistry. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.
Hayakawa, K., Kimura, M.and Kamata, K., 2002. Mechanism underlying ?-aminobutyric acid-induced antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. European Journal of Pharmacology 438: 107-113.
Hefni, M. and Witthoft, C.M., 2011. Increasing the folate content in Egyptian baladi bread using germinated wheat flour. LWT ? Food Science Technology 44: 706-712.
Hefni, M. and Witthoft, C.M., 2012. Effect of germination and subsequent oven-drying on folate content in different wheat and rye cultivars. Journal of Cereal Science 56: 374-378.
Helm, R., Cockrell, G., Herman, E., Burks, A., Sampson, H.A. and Bannon, G., 1998. Cellular and molecular characterization of a major soybean allergen. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 117: 29-37.
Herman, E.M., Helm, R.M., Jung, R. and Kinney, A.J., 2003. Genetic modification removes an immunodominant allergen from soybean. Plant Physiology 132: 36-43.
Hsing, Y.I.C., Tsou, C.H., Hsu, T.F., Chen, Z.Y., Hsieh, K.L., Hsieh, J.S. and Chow, T.Y., 1998. Tissue- and stage-specific expression of a soybean (Glycine max L.) seed-maturation, biotinylated protein. Plant Molecular Biology 38: 481-490.
Huang, X., Cai, W. and Xu, B., 2014. Kinetic changes of nutrients and antioxidant capacities of germinated soybean (Glycine max L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) with germination time. Food Chemistry 143: 268-276.
Hutchins, A.M., Slavin, J.L. and Lampe, J.W., 1995. Urinary isoflavonoid phytoestrogen and lignan escretion after consumption of fermented and unfermented soy products. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 95: 545-551.
Izsáki, Z. and Lázár, L., 2004. Cultivation of seed grain and trade from arable land. Mez?gazda Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.
Jabrin, S., Ravanel, S., Gambonnet, B., Douce, R. and Rébeillé, F., 2003. One-carbon metabolism in plants. Regulation of tetrahydrofolate synthesis during germination and seedling development. Plant Physiology 131: 1431-1439.
Kala?, P. and Mika, V., 1997. Natural harmful substances in vegetable fodder. UZPI, Praha, Czech Republic.
Kariluoto, S., 2008. Folate in rye: determination and enhancement by food processing. Dissertation, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
Kim, S.L., Lee, J.E., Kwon, Y.U., Kim, W.H., Jung, G.H., Kim, D.W., Lee, C.K., Lee, Y.Y., Kim, M.J., Kim, Y.H., Hwang, T.Y. and Chung, I.M., 2013. Introduction and nutritional evaluation of germinated soy germ. Food Chemistry 136: 491-500.
Kris-Etherton, P.M., Hecker, K.D., Bonanome, A., Coval, S.M., Binkoski, A.E., Hilpert, K.F., Griel, A.E. and Etherton, T.D., 2002. Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. American Journal of Medicine 113 Suppl. 2: 71-88.
Kuo, T.M., Lowell, C.A. and Smith, P.T., 1997. Changes in soluble carbohydrates and enzymic activities in maturing soybean seed tissues. Plant Science 125: 1-11.
Kuo, T.M., VanMiddlesworth, J.F. and Wolf, W.J., 1988. Content of raffinose oligosaccharides and sucrose in various plant seeds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 36: 32-36.
Lestienne, I., Icard-Vernière, C., Mouquet, C., Picq, C. and Trèche, S., 2005. Effects of soaking whole cereal and legume seeds on iron, zinc and phytate contents. Food Chemistry 89: 421-425.
Lin, P.Y. and Lai, H.M., 2006. Bioactive compounds in legumes and their germinated products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54: 3807-3814.
Liu, S.K., 1996. Soybeans: chemistry, technology and utilization. Chapman and Hall, New York, NY, USA.
Madison, J.T., Thompson, J.F. and Muenster, A.E., 1981. Turnover of storage protein in seeds of soybean and pea. Annals of Botany 47: 65-73.
Maga, J.A., 1982. Phytate: it’s chemistry, occurrence, food interactions, nutritional significance and method of analysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 30: 1-9.
Martín-Cabrejas, M.A., Ariza, N., Esteban, R., Mollá, E., Waldron, K. and López-Andréu, F.J., 2003. Effect of germination on the carbohydrate composition of the dietary fiber of peas (Pisum sativum L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51: 1254-1259.
Martín-Cabrejas, M.A., Díaz, M.F., Aguilera, Y., Benítez, V., Mollá, E. and Esteban, R.M., 2008. Influence of germination on the soluble carbohydrates and dietary fibre fractions in non-conventional legumes. Food Chemistry 107: 1045-1050.
Martínez-Villaluenga, C., Kuo, Y.H., Lambein, F., Frias, J. and Vidal-Valverde, C., 2006. Kinetics of free protein amino acids, free non-protein amino acids and trigonelline in soybean (Glycine max L.) and lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) sprouts. European Food Research and Technology 224: 177-186.
Masuda, T., Goto, F. and Yoshihara, T., 2001. A novel plant ferritin subunit from soybean that is related to a mechanism in iron release. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276: 19575-19579.
McGrain, A.K., Chen, J.C., Wilson, K.A. and Tan-Wilson, A.L., 1989. Degradation of trypsin inhibitors during soybean germination. Phytochemistry 28: 1013-1017.
Moon, J.K. and Shibamoto, T., 2009. Antioxidant assays for plant and food components. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57: 1655-1666.
Moroz, L.A. and Yang, W.H., 1980. Kunitz soybean trypsin inhibitor: a specific allergen in food anaphylaxis. New England Journal of Medicine 302: 1126-1128.
Mostafa, M.M., Rahma, E.H. and Rady, A.H., 1987. Chemical and nutritional changes in soybean during germination. Food Chemistry 23: 257-275.
Müntz, K., 1998. Deposition of storage proteins. Plant Molecular Biology 38: 77-99.
Müntz, K., Belozersky, M.A., Dunaevsky, Y.E., Schlereth, A. and Tiedemann, J., 2001. Stored proteinases and the initiation of storage protein mobilization in seeds during germination and seedling growth. Journal of Experimental Botany 52: 1741-1752.
Nonogaki, H., 2006. Seed germination – the biochemical and molecular mechanisms. Breeding Science 56: 93-105.
Obroucheva, N.V. and Antipova, O.V., 1997. Physiology of the initiation of seed germination. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 44: 250-264.
Ogawa, T., Bando, N., Tsuji, H., Okajima, H., Nishikawa, K. and Sasaoka, K., 1991. Investigation of the IgE-binding proteins in soybeans by immunoblotting with the sera of the soybean-sensitive patients with atopic-dermatitis. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 37: 555-565.
Penfield, S. and King, J., 2009. Towards a systems biology approach to understanding seed dormancy and germination. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences 276: 3561-3569.
Písaríková, B. and Zraly, Z., 2009. Dietary fiber content in Lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and soya (Glycine max L.) seeds. Acta Veterinaria Brno 79: 211-216.
Rajjou, L., Belghazi, M., Huguet, R., Robin, C., Moreau, A., Job, C. and Job, D., 2006. Proteomic investigation of the effect of salicylic acid on Arabidopsis seed germination and establishment of early defense mechanisms. Plant Physiology 141(3): 910-923.
Reddy, N.R., Sathe, S.K. and Salunkhe, D.K., 1982. Phytates in legumes and cereals. Advances in Food Research 28: 1-92.
Reddy, N.R., Pierson, M.D., Sathe, S.K. and Salunkhe, D.K., 1989. Phytates in cereals and legumes. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
Rychlik, M., Englert, K., Kapfer, S. and Kirchhoff, E., 2007. Folate contents of legumes determined by optimized enzyme treatment and stable isotope dilution assays. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 20: 411-419.
Sandberg, S.A., 2002. Bioavailability of minerals in legumes. British Journal of Nutrition 88 Suppl. S3: 281-285.
Sági, F., 1997. Cultivation and seed grain production of fodder-plants rich in protein (soybean, horse bean, pea) in the European Union. Országos Mez?gazdasági Könyvtár és Dokumentációs Központ, Budapest, Hungary.
Salgó, A., 1986. Examination of certain biochemical processes of germination in particular with regard to the role of proteolytic enzymes in wheat seed. PhD thesis. Kandidátusi értekezés, Budapest, Hungary.
Sano, N., Permana, H., Kumada, R., Shinozaki, Y., Tanabata, T., Yamada, T., Hirasawa, T. and Kanekatsu, M., 2012. Proteomic analysis of embryonic proteins synthesized from long-lived mRNAs during germination of rice seeds. Plant and Cell Physiology 53: 687-698.
Schryver, T., 2002. Increasing health benefits using soy germ. Cereal Foods World 47: 185-188.
Seguin, P., Turcotte, P., Tremblay, G., Pageau, D. and Liu, W., 2009. Tocopherols concentration and stability in early maturing soybean genotypes. Agronomy Journal 101: 1153-1159.
Selman I.W. and Cooper, P., 1977. Changes in the free amino compounds in young tomato plants in light and darkness with particular reference to ?-aminobutyric acid. Annals of Botany 42: 627-636.
Shi, H., Nam, K.P. and Ma, Y., 2010. Comprehensive profiling of isoflavones, phytosterols, tocopherols, minerals, crude protein, lipid, and sugar during soybean (Glycine max) germination. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58: 4970-4976.
Shohag, M.J.I., Wei, Y. and Yang, X., 2012. Changes of folate and other potential health-promoting phytochemicals in legume seeds as affected by germination. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60: 9137-9143.
Slavin, J., 2013. Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits. Nutrients 5: 1417-1435.
Sliwinska, E., Bassel, G.W. and Bewley, J.D., 2009. Germination of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds is not completed as a result of elongation of the radicle but of the adjacent transition zone and lower hypocotyl. Journal of Experimental Botany 60: 3587-3594.
Souci, S.W., Fachmann, W. and Kraut, H., 2008. Food composition and nutrition tables. MedPharm Scientific Publishers, Stuttgart, Germany.
Suberbie, F., Mendizábal, D. and Mendizábal, C., 1981. Germination of soybeans and its modifying effects on the quality of full-fat soy flour. Journal of American Oil Chemist’s Society 58: 192-194.
Suparmo, P.M. and Markakis, P., 1987. Tempeh prepared from germinated soybeans. Journal of Food Science 52: 1739-1737.
Tombs, M.P., 1967. Protein bodies of the soybean. Plant Physiology 42: 797-813.
Tsuji, H., Kimoto, M. and Natori, Y., 2001. Allergens in major corps. Nutrition Research 21: 925-934.
Ujiie, A., Yamada, T., Fujimoto, K., Endo, Y. and Kitamura, K., 2005. Identification of soybean varieties with high ?-tocopherol content. Breeding Science 55: 123-125.
Wai, K.N.T., Bishop, J.C., Mack, P.B. and Cotton, R.H., 1946. The vitamin content of soybeans and soybean sprouts as a function of germination time. Plant Physiology 22: 117-126.
Wang, H. and Murphy, P.A., 1994. Isoflavone content in commercial soybean foods. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 42: 1666-1673.
Weitbrecht, K., Müller, K. and Leubner-Metzger, G., 2011. First off the mark: early seed germination. Journal of Experimental Botany 62: 3289-3309.
Wilson, K.A., Papastoitsis, G., Hartl, P. and Tan-Wilson, A.L., 1988. Survey of the proteolytic activities degrading the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and glycinin in germinating soybean (Glycine max). Plant Physiology 88: 355-360.
Wilson, R.F. and Kwanguen, P., 1986. Triacylglycerol synthesis and metabolism in germinating soybean cotyledons. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta – Lipids and Lipid Metabolism 877: 231-237.
Wolf, W.J., 1969. Soybean protein nomenclature: a progress report. Cereal Science Today 14: 75-78, 129.
Wu, Y.M., Guan, R.X., Liu, Z.X., Li, R.Z., Chang, R.Z. and Qiu, L.J., 2012. Synthesis and degradation of the major allergens in developing and germinating soybean seed. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 54: 4-14.
Xu, X.Y., Fan, R., Zheng, R., Li, C.M. and Yu, D.Y., 2011. Proteomic analysis of seed germination under salt stress in soybeans. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B 12: 507-517.
Yamanishi, R., Tsuji, H., Bando, N., Yamada, Y., Nadaoka, Y., Huang, T., Nishikawa, K., Emoto, S. and Ogawa, T., 1996. Reduction of the allergenicity of soybean by treatment with proteases. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 42: 581-587.
Yon, M. and Hyun, T.H., 2003. Folate content of foods commonly consumed in Korea measured after trienzyme extraction. Nutrition Research 23: 735-746.
Yoshida, H., Takagi, S., Lenaga, H. and Tsuchiya, C., 1998. Regional distribution of tocopherols and fatty acids within soybean seeds. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 75: 767-774.
Zielinski, H., 2003. Contribution of low molecular weight antioxidants to the antioxidant screen of germinated soybean seeds. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 58: 1-20.