Control of rope spore forming bacteria using carambola (Averrhoa carambola) fruit pomace powder in wheat bread preparation

Main Article Content

M.L. Sudha
P. Viswanath
V. Siddappa
S. Rajarathnam
M.N. Shashirekha

Keywords

antimicrobial activity, Bacillus, bread, carambola fruit pomace, rope spore count

Abstract

Wheat bread is a high moisture, low acid product, susceptible to spoilage by Bacillus spp., as the endospores survive the baking temperatures. Carambola (Averrhoa carambola) fruit pomace, a by-product obtained after juice extraction, has an insoluble dietary fibre content of 61.0±1.2% and is rich in antimicrobial phenolic compounds of 17.8±1.1 gallic acid equivalent/g (water extract). The anti-nutritional content of oxalic acid in the fruit is reduced to 0.15 mg/g in the pomace. Studies on the antimicrobial activity of the dried pomace powder in dimethyl-sulfoxide as determined by the disc diffusion assay showed that the Gram-positive bacteria tested were more sensitive than Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration of Bacillus cereus and of Bacillus subtilis was 1.25 mg/ml of the dry pomace powder. Incorporation of carambola pomace powder into wheat flour for bread preparation at a 5% level resulted in a bread of acceptable sensory profile with a high desirable fibre content. The rope spore count of the bread with carambola fruit pomace powder at this level showed a count of 0.7 log10/g, an inhibition equal to that of bread with chemical preservatives added while the bread with no preservatives had a count of 8.76 log10/g at the end of 72 h when incubated at 35 °C, resulting in a product that was safe with added high fibre a desired nutrient quality.

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