Main Article Content
seed sprout, germination, hydrosol, decontamination, thyme
It is a requirement for both minimally processed and ready-to-eat fruit and vegetable industry and consumers to decrease use of harmful chemical antimicrobial agents such as chlorinated compounds in fresh product sanitation since they have a number of negative health and environmental effects. In this study, washing treatments with summer savoury, bayleaf and thyme hydrosols that are by-products essential oils were assessed for decontamination of wheat, mung bean and lentil seeds contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus prior to sprout production. Initial levels of S. aureus on wheat, lentil and mung bean were 4.86, 4.24 and 4.23 log colony forming units/g, respectively. Hydrosol treatments reduced S. aureus numbers significantly (P<0.05) depending on treatment time while the pathogen was not detected on mung bean soaked in the thyme hydrosol for 40 min. Sensitivity of S. Typhimurium was higher than S. aureus and thyme hydrosol achieved elimination of Salmonella on all of the seeds. Sanitising ability of the hydrosols were in order of thyme>summer savoury>bayleaf. Therefore, this study confirmed that plant hydrosols, especially thyme had potential to be used as a natural disinfectant for sanitation of seeds prior to germination in order to ensure their microbiological safety.
Bari, M.L., Al-Haq, M.I., Kawasaki, T., Nakauma, M., Todoriki, S., Kawamoto, S. and Isshiki, K., 2004. Irradiation to kill Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Salmonella on ready-to-eat radish and mung bean sprouts. Journal of Food Protection 67: 2263-2268.
Bari, M.L., Nazuka, E., Sabina, Y., Todoriki, S. and Isshiki, K., 2003. Chemical and irradiation treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157: H7 on alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds. Journal of Food Protection 66: 767-774.
Beuchat, L.R., 1996. Pathogenic microorganisms associated with fresh produce. Journal of Food Protection 59: 204-216.
Breuer, T., Benkel, D.H., Shapiro, R.L., Hall, W.N., Winnett, M.M., Linn, M.J., Neimann, J., Barrett, T.J., Dietrich, S., Downes, F.P., Toney, D.M., Pearson, J.L., Rolka, H., Slutsker, L., Griffin, P.M. and Investigation Team, 2001. A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infections linked to alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated seeds. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7: 977-982.
Buchholz, U., Bernard, H., Werber, D., Böhmer, M.M., Remschmidt, C., Wilking, H., Deleré, Y., Van der Heiden, M., Adlhoch, C., Dreesman, J., Ehlers, J., Ethelberg, S., Faber, M., Frank, C., Fricke, G., Greiner, M., Höhle, M., Ivarsson, S., Jark, U., Kirchner, M., Koch, J., Krause, G., Luber, P., Rosner, B., Stark, K. and Kühne, M., 2011. German outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 associated with sprouts. New England Journal of Medicine 365: 1763-1770.
Burt, S., 2004. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods – a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology 94: 223-253.
Calzuola, I., Luigi Gianfranceschi, G. and Marsili, V., 2006. Comparative activity of antioxidants from wheat sprouts, Morinda citrifolia, fermented papaya and white tea. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 57: 168-177.
Calzuola, I., Marsili, V. and Gianfranceschi, G.L., 2004. Synthesis of antioxidants in wheat sprouts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 5201-5206.
Choi, S., Beuchat, L.R., Kim, H. and Ryu, J.-H., 2016. Viability of sprout seeds as affected by treatment with aqueous chlorine dioxide and dry heat, and reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on pak choi seeds by sequential treatment with chlorine dioxide, drying, and dry heat. Food Microbiology 54: 127-132.
Delaquis, P.J., Sholberg, P.L. and Stanich, K., 1999. Disinfection of mung bean seed with gaseous acetic acid. Journal of Food Protection 62: 953-957.
Dhakal, K., Jeong, Y.-S., Lee, J.-D., Baek, I.-Y., Ha, T.-J. and Hwang, Y.-H., 2009. Fatty acid composition in each structural part of soybean seed and sprout. Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology 12: 97-101.
Gharachorloo, M., Tarzi, B.G., Baharinia, M. and Hemaci, A.H., 2012. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of germinated lentil (Lens culinaris). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6: 4562-4566.
Goni, M.G., Moreira, M.R., Viacava, G.E. and Roura, S.I., 2013. Optimization of chitosan treatments for managing microflora in lettuce seeds without affecting germination. Carbohydrate Polymers 92: 817-823.
Issa-Zacharia, A., Kamitani, Y., Miwa, N., Muhimbula, H. and Iwasaki, K., 2011. Application of slightly acidic electrolyzed water as a potential non-thermal food sanitizer for decontamination of fresh ready-to-eat vegetables and sprouts. Food Control 22: 601-607.
Jaquette, C.B., Beuchat, L.R. and Mahon, B.E., 1996. Efficacy of chlorine and heat treatment in killing Salmonella stanley inoculated onto alfalfa seeds and growth and survival of the pathogen during sprouting and storage. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62: 2212-2215.
Kim, C., Hung, Y.-C., Brackett, R.E. and Lin, C.-S., 2003. Efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing water in inactivating Salmonella on alfalfa seeds and sprouts. Journal of Food Protection 66: 208-214.
King, L.A., Nogareda, F., Weill, F.-X., Mariani-Kurkdjian, P., Loukiadis, E., Gault, G., Jourdan-DaSilva, N., Bingen, E., Macé, M., Thevenot, D., Ong, N., Castor, C., Noël, H., Van Cauteren, D., Charron, M., Vaillant, V., Aldabe, B., Goulet, V., Delmas, G., Couturier, E., Le Strat, Y., Combe, C., Delmas, Y., Terrier, F., Vendrely, B., Rolland, P. and De Valk, H., 2012. Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 associated with organic fenugreek sprouts, France, June 2011. Clinical Infectious Diseases 54: 1588-1594.
Lang, M.M., Ingham, B.H. and Ingham, S.C., 2000. Efficacy of novel organic acid and hypochlorite treatments for eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 from alfalfa seeds prior to sprouting. International Journal of Food Microbiology 58: 73-82.
Mahon, B.E., Pönkä, A., Hall, W.N., Komatsu, K., Dietrich, S.E., Siitonen, A., Cage, G., Hayes, P.S., Lambert-Fair, M.A., Bean, N.H., Griffin, P.M. and Slutsker, L., 1997. An international outbreak of Salmonella infections caused by alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated seeds. Journal of Infectious Diseases 175: 876-882.
Michino, H., Araki, K., Minami, S., Takaya, S., Sakai, N., Miyazaki, M., Ono, A. and Yanagawa, H., 1999. Massive outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection in schoolchildren in Sakai city, Japan, associated with consumption of white radish sprouts. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 787-796.
Mohle-Boetani, J.C., Farrar, J., Bradley, P., Barak, J.D., Miller, M., Mandrell, R., Mead, P., Keene, W.E., Cummings, K., Abbott, S. and Werner, S.B., 2009. Salmonella infections associated with mung bean sprouts: Epidemiological and environmental investigations. Epidemiology and Infection 137: 357-366.
National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF), 1999. Microbiological safety evaluations and recommendations on sprouted seeds. International Journal of Food Microbiology 52: 123-153.
Neetoo, H., Pizzolato, T. and Chen, H., 2009. Elimination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from alfalfa seeds through a combination of high hydrostatic pressure and mild heat. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 1901-1907.
Ozturk, I., Sagdic, O., Hayta, M. and Yetim, H., 2012a. Alteration in ?-tocopherol, some minerals, and fatty acid contents of wheat through sprouting. Chemistry of Natural Compounds 47: 876-879.
Ozturk, I., Tornuk, F., Sagdic, O. and Kisi, O., 2012b. Application of non-linear models to predict inhibition effects of various plant hydrosols on Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on fresh-cut apples. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 9: 607-616.
Painter, J.A., Hoekstra, R.M., Ayers, T., Tauxe, R.V., Braden, C.R., Angulo, F.J. and Griffin, P.M., 2013. Attribution of foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths to food commodities by using outbreak data, United States, 1998-2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases 19: 407-415
Piernas, V. and Guiraud, J.P., 1997. Disinfection of rice seeds prior to sprouting. Journal of Food Science 62: 611-615.
Plaza, L., De Ancos, B. and Cano, P.M., 2003. Nutritional and health-related compounds in sprouts and seeds of soybean (Glycine max), wheat (Triticum aestivum.L) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) treated by a new drying method. European Food Research and Technology 216: 138-144.
Sagdic, O. and Ozcan, M., 2003. Antibacterial activity of Turkish spice hydrosols. Food Control 14: 141-143.
Sagdic, O., Ozturk, I. and Tornuk, F., 2013. Inactivation of non-toxigenic and toxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated on minimally processed tomatoes and cucumbers: Utilization of hydrosols of Lamiaceae spices as natural food sanitizers. Food Control 30: 7-14.
Sa?d?ç, O., 2003. Sensitivity of four pathogenic bacteria to Turkish thyme and oregano hydrosols. LWT – Food Science and Technology 36: 467-473.
Sharma, R.R. and Demirci, A., 2003. Treatment of Escherichia coliO157:H7 inoculated alfalfa seeds and sprouts with electrolyzed oxidizing water. International Journal of Food Microbiology 86: 231-237.
Singh, N., Singh, R.K. and Bhunia, A.K., 2003. Sequential disinfection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated alfalfa seeds before and during sprouting using aqueous chlorine dioxide, ozonated water, and thyme essential oil. LWT – Food Science and Technology 36: 235-243.
Sivapalasingam, S., Friedman, C.R., Cohen, L. and Tauxe, R.V., 2004. Fresh produce: a growing cause of outbreaks of foodborne illness in the United States, 1973 through 1997. Journal of Food Protection 67: 2342-2353.
Slayton, R.B., Turabelidze, G., Bennett, S.D., Schwensohn, C.A., Yaffee, A.Q., Khan, F., Butler, C., Trees, E., Ayers, T.L., Davis, M.L., Laufer, A.S., Gladbach, S., Williams, I. and Gieraltowski, L.B., 2013. Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 associated with romaine lettuce consumption, 2011. PLoS ONE 8: e55300.
Stewart, D., Reineke, K., Ulaszek, J., Fu, T. and Tortorello, M., 2001. Growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during sprouting of alfalfa seeds. Letters in Applied Microbiology 33: 95-99.
Taormina, P.J., Beuchat, L.R. and Slutsker, L., 1999. Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5: 626-634.
Törnük, F. and Dertli, E., 2015. Decontamination of Escherichia coliO157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus from fresh-cut parsley with natural plant hydrosols. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 39: 1587-1594.
Tornuk, F., Cankurt, H., Ozturk, I., Sagdic, O., Bayram, O. and Yetim, H., 2011a. Efficacy of various plant hydrosols as natural food sanitizers in reducing Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium on fresh cut carrots and apples. International Journal of Food Microbiology 148: 30-35.
Tornuk, F., Ozturk, I., Sagdic, O. and Yetim, H., 2011b. Determination and improvement of microbial safety of wheat sprouts with chemical sanitizers. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 8: 503-508.
Tornuk, F., Ozturk, I., Sagdic, O., Yilmaz, A. and Erkmen, O., 2014. Application of predictive inactivation models to evaluate survival of Staphylococcus aureus in fresh-cut apples treated with different plant hydrosols. International Journal of Food Properties 17: 587-598.
Waje, C. and Kwon, J.-H., 2007. Improving the food safety of seed sprouts through irradiation treatments. Food Science and Biotechnology 16: 171-176.
Wu, J., Doan, H. and Cuenca, M.A., 2006. Investigation of gaseous ozone as an anti-fungal fumigant for stored wheat. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 81: 1288-1293.
Wuytack, E.Y., Diels, A.M.J., Meersseman, K. and Michiels, C.W., 2003. Decontamination of seeds for seed sprout production by high hydrostatic pressure. Journal of Food Protection 66: 918-923.