Effects of immature wheat on the nutritional and antinutritional quality of leavened and unleavened bread

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H. Levent
N. Bilgiçli


immature, phytic acid, minerals, total phenolic, antioxidant activity


Three different wheat cultivars (Bezostaya-1, Gerek-79 and K?z?ltan-98) were harvested at 2 maturity stages. Whole-wheat flour of immature wheat (WFIW) at 20% level and refined white flour of immature wheat (RFIW) at 10% level replaced commercial whole-wheat flour and refined white flour, respectively. Leavened and unleavened breads were prepared with those WFIW and RFIW flour blends. Some nutritional and antinutritional properties (ash, protein, fat, crude fibre, phytate phosphorus, phytic acid, minerals, total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity) of immature wheat and both types of bread were determined. The phytate phosphorus, phytic acid, total phenolic, P and K content of wheat decreased (P<0.05) with maturity. P, K, Fe and Zn content of bread prepared with K?z?ltan-98 flour blends was found higher than that of other breads. The usage of WFIW at first maturity stage in leavened/unleavened bread preparation, increased the ash, total phenolic, mineral content and antioxidant activity compared to bread prepared with commercial whole-wheat flour. It was concluded that immature wheat especially at early stage of maturity is a rich source of nutrients for enriching leavened/unleavened bread prepared with WFIW flour blends.

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