Main Article Content
ferulic acid, paddy rice, process, TEAC
Changes in the chemical composition of rice from harvest to packaging were searched. The phytic acid content in rice bran and final white rice was 64.25 and 9.66 mg/g (dry basis; db), respectively. Sugars (fructose, glucose, and sucrose), organic acids (citric and malic), and free amino acids (alanine, aspartic, and glutamic acid) decreased according to the progressing stages. The most abundant phenolic compound present in rice kernels was ferulic acid. The antioxidant capacity of rice bran was 428.97 µM Trolox equivalent (TE)/g (db), and it dropped from 126.23 to 60.76 µM TE/g (db) during processing. The L* colour value of rice samples showed a linear increase with decreasing antioxidant capacity. About half the phytic acid content and antioxidant activity was removed as a consequence of the dehulling, whitening, polishing, and grading of rice kernels.
American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC), 2000. Approved methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists, methods 08-01. AACC International, St. Paul, MN, USA.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 1990. Official methods of analysis, method 930.15. AOAC, Inc., Arlington, VA, USA.
Cao, Y., Wang, Y., Chen, X. and Ye, J., 2004. Study on sugar profile of rice during ageing by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. Food Chemistry 86: 131-136.
Cocchi, M., Durante, C., Grandi, M., Lambertini, P., Manzini, D. and Marchetti, A., 2006. Simultaneous determination of sugars and organic acids in aged vinegars and chemometric data analysis. Talanta 69: 1166-1175.
Erbas, M., Sekerci, H., Gul, S., Furat, S., Yol, E. and Uzun, B., 2009. Changes in total antioxidant capacity of sesame (Sesamum sp.) by variety. Asian Journal of Chemistry 21: 5549-5555.
Falade, K.O. and Christopher, A.S., 2015. Physical, functional, pasting and thermal properties of flours and starches of six Nigerian rice cultivars. Food Hydrocolloids 44: 478-490.
Farahmand, E., Razavi, S.H., Yarmand, M.S. and Morovatpour, M., 2015. Development of Iranian rice-bran sourdough breads: physicochemical, microbiological and sensorial characterization during the storage period. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 7: 295-303.
Febles, C.I., Arias, A., Hardisson, A., Rodríguez-Álvarez, C. and Sierra, A., 2001. Phytic acid level in infant flours. Food Chemistry 74: 437-441.
Finch, H.J.S., Samuel, A.M. and Lane, G.P.F., 2014. 13. Cereals. In: Finch, H.J.S., Samuel, A.M. and Lane, G.P.F. (eds.), Lockhart & Wiseman’s crop husbandry including grassland (9th Ed.). Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, pp. 287-336.
Frank, T., Reichardt, B., Shu, Q. and Engel, K.-H., 2012. Metabolite profiling of colored rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains. Journal of Cereal Science 55: 112-119.
Garcia-Estepa, R.M., Guerra-Hernandez, E. and Garcia-Villanova, B., 1999. Phytic acid content in milled cereal products and breads. Food Research International 32: 217-221.
Garcia, M.C., Benassi, M.D.T. and Soares Jr., M.S., 2012. Physicochemical and sensory profile of rice bran roasted in microwave. Ciencia E Tecnologia De Alimentos 32: 754-761.
Goufo, P. and Trindade, H., 2014. Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, ?-oryzanol, and phytic acid. Food Science & Nutrition 2: 75-104.
Hsu, C.L., Chen, W.L., Weng, Y.M. and Tseng, C.Y., 2003. Chemical composition, physical properties, and antioxidant activities of yam flours as affected by different drying methods. Food Chemistry 83: 85-92.
Kamiloglu, S., Capanoglu, E., Yilmaz, O., Duran, A.F. and Boyacioglu, D., 2014. Investigating the antioxidant potential of Turkish herbs and spices. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 6: 151-158.
Kim, D. and Han, G.D., 2012. High hydrostatic pressure treatment combined with enzymes increases the extractability and bioactivity of fermented rice bran. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 16: 191-197.
Kim, H.Y., Hwang, I.G., Kim, T.M., Woo, K.S., Park, D.S., Kim, J.H., Kim, D.J., Lee, J., Lee, Y.R. and Jeong, H.S., 2012. Chemical and functional components in different parts of rough rice (Oryza sativaL.) before and after germination. Food Chemistry 134: 288-293.
Lamberts, L., De Bie, E., Vandeputte, G.E., Veraverbeke, W.S., Derycke, V., De Man, W. and Delcour, J.A., 2007. Effect of milling on colour and nutritional properties of rice. Food Chemistry 100: 1496-1503.
Liang, H., Li, Z., Tsuji, K., Nakano, K., Nout, M.R. and Hamer, R.J., 2008. Milling characteristics and distribution of phytic acid and zinc in long-, medium- and short-grain rice. Journal of Cereal Science 48: 83-91.
Liu, L., Guo, J.J., Zhang, R.F., Wei, Z.C., Deng, Y.Y., Guo, J.X. and Zhang, M.W., 2015. Effect of degree of milling on phenolic profiles and cellular antioxidant activity of whole brown rice. Food Chemistry 185: 318-325.
Madamba, P.S. and Yabes, R.P., 2005. Determination of the optimum intermittent drying conditions for rough rice (Oryza sativa, L.). LWT-Food Science and Technology 38: 157-165.
Michalska, A., Amigo-Benavent, M., Zielinski, H. and Del Castillo, M.D., 2008. Effect of bread making on formation of Maillard reaction products contributing to the overall antioxidant activity of rye bread. Journal of Cereal Science 48: 123-132.
Min, B., McClung, A. and Chen, M.-H., 2014. Effects of hydrothermal processes on antioxidants in brown, purple and red bran whole grain rice (Oryza sativa L.). Food Chemistry 159: 106-115.
Mohan, B.H., Malleshi, N.G. and Koseki, T., 2010. Physico-chemical characteristics and non-starch polysaccharide contents of indica and japonica brown rice and their malts. LWT-Food Science and Technology 43: 784-791.
Moongngarm, A. and Saetung, N., 2010. Comparison of chemical compositions and bioactive compounds of germinated rough rice and brown rice. Food Chemistry 122: 782-788.
Nenadis, N., Kyriakoudi, A. and Tsimidou, M.Z., 2013. Impact of alkaline or acid digestion to antioxidant activity, phenolic content and composition of rice hull extracts. LWT-Food Science and Technology 54: 207-215.
Oli, P., Ward, R., Adhikari, B. and Torley, P., 2014. Parboiled rice: understanding from a materials science approach. Journal of Food Engineering 124: 173-183.
Palombini, S.V., Maruyama, S.A., Claus, T., Carbonera, F., De Souza, N.E., Visentainer, J.V., Gomes, S.T.M. and Matsushita, M., 2013. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Brazilian rice cultivars. Food Science and Technology 33: 699-704.
Parrado, J., Miramontes, E., Jover, M., Gutierrez, J.F., Collantes de Terán, L. and Bautista, J., 2006. Preparation of a rice bran enzymatic extract with potential use as functional food. Food Chemistry 98: 742-748.
Pradeep, P.M., Jayadeep, A., Guha, M. and Singh, V., 2014. Hydrothermal and biotechnological treatments on nutraceutical content and antioxidant activity of rice bran. Journal of Cereal Science 60: 187-192.
Re, R., Pellegrini, N., Proteggente, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M. and Rice-Evans, C., 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 26: 1231-1237.
Rosenberg, H.R. and Culik, R., 1957. The improvement of the protein quality of white rice by lysine supplementation. The Journal of Nutrition 63: 477-487.
Saikusa, T., Horino, T. and Mori, Y., 1994. Distribution of free amino acids in the rice kernel and kernel fractions and the effect of water soaking on the distribution. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 42: 1122-1125.
Shao, Y.F., Xu, F.F., Sun, X., Bao, J.S. and Beta, T., 2014. Identification and quantification of phenolic acids and anthocyanins as antioxidants in bran, embryo and endosperm of white, red and black rice kernels (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Cereal Science 59: 211-218.
Sharma, N., Kaur, R., Mangat, G.S. and Singh, K., 2014. Red pericarp introgression lines derived from interspecific crosses of rice: physicochemical characteristics, antioxidative properties and phenolic content. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 94: 2912-2920.
Srinivasan, M., Sudheer, A.R. and Menon, V.P., 2007. Ferulic acid: therapeutic potential through its antioxidant property. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 40: 92-100.
Ti, H.H., Li, Q., Zhang, R.F., Zhang, M.W., Deng, Y.Y., Wei, Z.C., Chi, J.W. and Zhang, Y., 2014. Free and bound phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of milled fractions of different indica rice varieties cultivated in southern China. Food Chemistry 159: 166-174.
Wang, C.J., Zuo, Y.G., Vinson, J.A. and Deng, Y.W., 2012. Absorption and excretion of cranberry-derived phenolics in humans. Food Chemistry 132: 1420-1428.
Wang, K.M., Wu, J.G., Li, G., Zhang, D.P., Yang, Z.W. and Shi, C.H., 2011. Distribution of phytic acid and mineral elements in three indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. Journal of Cereal Science 54: 116-121.
Weinberg, Z.G., Yan, Y., Chen, Y., Finkelman, S., Ashbell, G. and Navarro, S., 2008. The effect of moisture level on high-moisture maize (Zea mays L.) under hermetic storage conditions – in vitro studies. Journal of Stored Products Research 44: 136-144.
Wu, J.G.G., Shi, C.H. and Zhang, X.M., 2002. Estimating the amino acid composition in milled rice by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Field Crops Research 75: 1-7.
Wu, W.S., Chang, Y.H., Pan, B.S. and Huang, T.C., 2011. Effects of phosphates on the pasting properties of rice flour from waxy and non-waxy varieties. Journal of Texture Studies 42: 31-41.
Zhou, Z.K., Robards, K., Helliwell, S. and Blanchard, C., 2004. The distribution of phenolic acids in rice. Food Chemistry 87: 401-406.