Improvement of physical, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of sunn pest (Eurygaster integriceps) damaged wheat by blending

Main Article Content

H. Dizlek
M.S. Özer


blending, bread wheat, optimum blending ratio, sunn pest, wheat quality


This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of blending to improve the physical, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of high level sunn pest damaged wheat (HLSPDW). HLSPDW (20.6%) variety (Sagittario) was blended at seven different levels with the sound wheat (SW) of same variety. When HLSPDW was blended with SW, the harm of sunn pest was relatively reduced. With an increasing SW portion in the blend, also physical, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of wheat increased. The HLSPDW used in blending was found more decisive than SW in determination of the wheat, flour, and dough quality. Therefore, one has to be very careful about the ratio of HLSPDW mass used in the blending process. Otherwise, an SW sample could be wasted through blending with HLSPDW. The blending treatment alone is insufficient for improving the quality of HLSPDW, however this technique can be implemented in combination with some other methods such as using additives in bread-making.

Abstract 73 | PDF Downloads 71


AACC International (AACC), 2000. Approved methods of the American association of cereal chemists. The Association, St. Paul, MN, USA.
Aja, S., Perez, G. and Rosell, C.M., 2004. Wheat damage by Aelia spp.and Erygaster spp.: effects on gluten and water-soluble compounds released by gluten hydrolysis. Journal of Cereal Science 39: 187-193.
Atasanova, E. and Popova, V., 1968. On some alterations in the composition of wheat grain damaged by wheat bugs (Eurygasterand Aelia). Rastenievudni Nauki 5: 87.
Atli, A., 1985. The effects of the environment and variety on the quality characteristics of some bread wheat varieties grown in the Central Anatolia. PhD thesis, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.
Atli, A., Kocak, N., Köksel, H., Ozan, A.N., Aktan, B., Karababa, E., Dag, A., Tuncer, T., Dikmen, B. and Ozkan, S., 1988a. The effects of damaged grains by sunn pest (Eurygaster spp.) and wheat stinkbug (Aelia spp.) on quality of bread wheat. Tarm Printing, Ankara, Turkey.
Atli, A., Köksel, H. and Dag, A., 1988b. Effect of sunn pest damage on bread wheat quality and its determination. First International Sunn Pest Symposium. June 13-17, 1988. Tekirdag, Turkey, pp. 1-19.
Bonet, A., Caballero, P.A., Gómez, M. and Rosell, C.M., 2005. Microbial transglutaminase as a tool to restore the functionality of gluten from insect-damaged wheat. Cereal Chemistry 82: 425-430.
Bushuk, W., 1998. Interactions in wheat doughs. In: Hamer, R.J. and Hoseney, R.C. (eds.) Interactions: the keys to cereal quality. AACC International, St. Paul, MN, USA, pp. 1-16.
Caballero, P.A., Bonet, A., Rosell, C.M. and Gómez, M., 2005a. Effect of microbial transglutaminase on the rheological and thermal properties of insect damaged wheat flour. Journal of Cereal Science 42: 93-100.
Caballero, P.A., Gómez, M., Rosell, C.M., Blanco, C.A. and Ronda, F., 2005b. Enzymatic treatment to counteract the proteolytic activity of bug-damaged wheat flours. In: Fito, P. and Toldrá, F. (eds.) Innovations in traditional foods. Elsevier, London, UK, pp. 265-268.
Critchley, B.R., 1998. Literature review of sunn pest Eurygaster Integriceps Put. (Hemiptera, Scutelleridae). Crop Protection 17: 271-287.
Diraman, H. and Atli, A., 2005. Occurring physical changes on some gluten properties of suni-damaged wheat steam tempering. In: Proceedings of the fourth GAP Agriculture Congress. September 21-23, 2005. Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey, pp. 1466-1471.
Diraman, H. and Boyacioglu, M.H., 1997. The studies of application of microwave process on the flours: II. Some qualitative and rheological changes in sunn pest damaged flour by application of microwave process. World of Flour Products 5: 4-6, 8, 10.
Diraman, H. and Demirci, M., 1997. A preliminary study in suni bug (Eurygaster spp.) damaged wheat flours on gluten quality effect of thermal process and some additives. World of Flour Products 6: 4-11.
Diraman, H., 2009. Effect of suni-bug (Eurygaster spp.) damage on some biochemical properties of bread wheat variety (Bezostaja). Asian Journal of Chemistry 21: 7049-7053.
Diraman, H., 2010. Effect of microwaves on technological and rheological properties of suni-bug (Eurygaster spp.) damaged and undamaged wheat flour. Food Science Technology Research 16: 313-318.
Diraman, H., Boyacioglu, M.H. and Atli, A., 1998. Insect enzyme problem in wheat processing and some remedies. Pastry, Bread, Ice Cream Technical Magazine 2: 43, 46-48.
Diraman, H., Boyacioglu, M.H., Boyacioglu, D. and Khan, K., 2013. The effect of steam tempering of insect (wheat bug, Eurygaster spp.) damaged on some protein fractions and farinogram values. Journal of Food 38: 359-365.
Dizlek, H. and Gul, H., 2007. Improvement of the bread quality made from sunn pest (Eurygaster spp.) damaged wheat flours. Journal of Agricultural Faculty of Uludag University 21: 51-58.
Dizlek, H. and Islamoglu, M., 2015. Effects of sunn pest (Eurygaster maura L. Heteroptera; Scutelleridae) sucking number on physical and physicochemical characteristics of wheat varieties. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 88: 10-15.
Dizlek, H. and Özer, M.S., 2010. A study of improving possibility on sunn pest damaged bread wheat quality. Cukurova University Institute of Natural and Applied Science, Journal of Science and Engineering 22: 33-43.
Dizlek, H. and Özer, M.S., 2016. Effects of sunn pest (Eurygaster integriceps) damage ratio on physical, chemical, and technological characteristics of wheat. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops and Foods 8: 145-156.
Dizlek, H. and Özer, M.S., 2017. Effects of sunn pest (Eurygaster integriceps) damage ratio on rheological characteristics of wheat flour. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops and Foods 9: 47-54.
Dizlek, H., Karatekin, E., Özer, M.S. and Gul, H., 2008a. Effects of glucose oxidase, hexose oxidase, and citric acid on II. grain structure, height, width, crumb softness, and moisture content of breads produced from insect (Eurygaster integriceps) damaged wheat flour. Academic Food Journal 6: 12-20.
Dizlek, H., Özer, M.S. and Gul, H., 2008b. Determination of amylase activity in insect (Eurygaster integriceps) damaged wheats. In: Köksel, H., Uygun, U. and Basman, A. (eds.) Proceedings book of Bosphorus 2008 ICC international conference. April 24-26, 2008. Istanbul, Turkey, p. 164.
Dizlek, H., Özer, M.S., Altan, A. and Gul, H., 2006. The interaction of wheat gluten proteins. In: Belibagli, K.B. and Dalgic, A.C. (eds.) Proceedings book of cereal products technology congress and fair. September 7-8, 2006. Gaziantep, Turkey, pp. 280-286.
Elgun, A., Ertugay, Z., Certel, M. and Kotancilar, H.G., 1998. Analytical quality control of cereal and products and laboratory practice guide. Ataturk University Faculty of Agriculture Offset Facility, Erzurum, Turkey.
Elgun, A., Turker, S. and Tirelioglu, M., 1992. Some studies on the measurement and elimination of the proteolytic activity of Eurogaster and Aelia damaged wheats. Selcuk University Journal of Agricultural Faculty 2: 27-37.
Ertugay, Z., Celik, I., Elgun, A. and Ertugay, M.F., 1995. The application of different tempering methods to Sunn pest (Eurygaster spp.) damaged and undamaged wheat III: effect on bread properties. World of Flour Products 4: 10-12, 14-16.
Every, D., Farrell, J.A.K. and Stufkens, M.W., 1990. Wheat-bug damage in New Zealand wheats: the feeding mechanism of Nysius huttoniand its effect on the morphological and physiological development of wheat. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 50: 297-309.
General Directorate of Agricultural Research and Policies (TAGEM), 2004. The national sunn pest project. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock. Food Technology Studies, Project Number: 11, Ankara, Turkey.
Greenaway, W.T., Neustadt, M.H. and Zeleny, L., 1965. Communication to the editor: a test for stink bug damage in wheat. Cereal Chemistry 42: 577-579.
Hariri, G., Williams, P.C. and El-Haramein, F.J., 2000. Influence of pentatomid insects on the physical dough properties and two-layered flat bread baking quality of Syrian wheat. Journal of Cereal Science 31: 111-118.
Hatcher, D.W., Dexter, J.E., Anderson, M.J., Bellido, G.G. and Fu, B.X., 2009. Effect of blending durum wheat flour with hard white wheat flour on the quality of yellow alkaline noodles. Food Chemistry 113: 980-988.
Hatcher, D.W., Edwards, N.M. and Dexter, J.E., 2008. Impact of flour particle size and starch damage and alkaline reagent on yellow alkaline noodle characteristics. Cereal Chemistry 85: 425-432.
Hook, S.C.W., 1983. Recent studies on wheat tempering. FMBRA Bulletin 4: 159-165.
International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), 1983. Counteracting suni bug damage to wheat flour baking quality. ICARDA Highlights 82, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria, pp. 17-18.
Karababa, E. and Ozan, A.N., 1998. Effect of wheat bug (Eurygaster integriceps) damage on quality of a wheat variety grown in Turkey. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 77: 399-403.
Kinaci, E. and Kinaci, G., 2004. Quality and yield losses due to Sunn pest (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) in different wheat types in Turkey. Field Crops Research 89: 187-195.
Kocak, A.N. and Atli, A., 1996. Bread wheat blending research III. Improvement of farinogram and extensogram properties of some bread wheat varieties by blending. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 20: 359-373.
Kocak, A.N., 1988. Research on increasing bread quality of low quality bread wheat varieties and triticale. PhD thesis, Ankara University, Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Food Engineering, Ankara, Turkey.
Kocak, A.N., Seckin, R. and Atli, A., 1993. Research on bread wheat blending I. Improvement of flour yield and ash content by blending. Journal of Food 18: 13-19.
Köksel, H., Atli, A., Dag, A. and Sivri, D., 2002. Commercial milling of sunn pest (Eurygaster spp.) damaged wheat. Nahrung-Food 46: 25-27.
Köksel, H., Sivri, D., Ng, P.K.W. and Steffe, J.F., 2001. Effects of transglutaminase enzyme on fundamental rheological properties of sound and bug-damaged wheat flour doughs. Cereal Chemistry 78: 26-30.
Kretovich, V.L., 1944. Biochemistry of the damage to grain by the wheat-bug. Cereal Chemistry 21: 1-16.
Lodos, N., 1982. Turkey entomology ‘general, practical and faunistic’. Ege University Faculty of Agriculture Offset Facilities, ?zmir, Turkey.
Lorenz, K. and Meredith, P., 1988a. Insect damaged wheat: history of the problem, effects on baking quality, remedies. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft and Technologie 21: 181-187.
Lorenz, K. and Meredith, P., 1988b. Insect damaged wheat: effects on starch characteristics. Starch-Starke 40: 136-139.
Matsoukas, N.P. and Morrison, W.R., 1990. Bread making quality of ten Greek bread-wheats and storage tests on bread made by long fermentation and activated (chemical) dough development processes, and the effects of bug damaged wheat. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 53: 363-377.
Ozkaya, B., Yurtyapan, A., Ozdemir, N., Yasacan, Z., Avci, B. and Caliskan, K., 1990. Investigation of correction possibilities of bread quality of flours derived from certain ratio damaged wheat samples suffered by sunn pest. Project Number: KKGA-YG-O2-H3. Ankara Provincial Control Laboratory Directorate, Ankara, Turkey, pp. 36-50.
Ozkaya, H. and Ozkaya, B., 1993. The importance of Eurygaster and Aelia in wheat quality. World of Flour Products 2: 20-22, 24-25.
Pérez, G., Bonet, A. and Rosell, C.M., 2005. Relationship between gluten degradation by Aelia spp and Eurygaster spp and protein structure. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 85: 1125-1130.
Perten, H., 1990. Rapid measurement of wet gluten quality by the gluten index. Cereal Foods World 35: 401-402.
Redman, D.G., 1971. Softening of gluten by wheat proteases. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 22: 75-78.
Rosell, C.M., Aja, S. and Sadowska, J., 2002. Amylase activities in insect (Aelia and Eurygaster)-damaged wheat. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 82: 977-982.
Sinangil, S., 1992. Rapid and accurate determination of the wheat quality. World of Flour Products 1: 44-45.
Sivri, D. and Köksel, H., 1996. The possibility of using gamma-?rradiation and microwave treatments for ?nactivation of wheat bug enzymes. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on food physics, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 60-61.
Sivri, D., Batey, I.L., Skylas, D.J., Daqiq, L. and Wrigley, C.W., 2004. Changes in endosperm protein composition and size distribution of bug-damaged wheats. Australian Journal Agricultural Research 55: 477-483.
Tuncer, T., Atli, A., Köksel, H., Ozan, A.N., Sivri, D., Cinkaya, N., Kosker, S., Celik, S. and Ozderen, T., 2002. Increasing quality and utility of suni bug damaged wheat. In: Proceedings book of cereal products technology congress and fair. October 3-4, 2002. Gaziantep, Turkey, pp. 141-155.
Turker, S. and Elgun, A., 1997. An investigation on the optimum blending ratios of Bezostaya-1 and Gerek-79 in the high and low protein contents for breadmaking. Journal of Food 22: 25-33.
Turker, S. and Elgun, A., 1998. The effects of microwave application of the conditioned wheat damaged by Aelia and Eurygaster on the milling and breadmaking properties of the flour obtained. Journal of Food 23: 67-73.
Turker, S., 1998. Sunn pest-wheat stinkbug damage in wheat and precautions. Konya Ticaret Borsasi Dergisi 1: 27-32.
Turkish Standards Institute (TSE), 2003. Wheat. TS 2974, Turkish Standards Institute, Ankara, Turkey.
Uluoz, M., 1965. Analytical methods of wheat, flour and bread. Ege University Faculty of Agriculture Offset Facilities, Izmir, Turkey.
Unal, S.S., Olcay, M., Özer, C. and Kose, E., 1993. Correcting the bread qualities of sunn pest damaged wheat flours by additive. World of Flour Products 2: 6-8, 10-12.
Williams, P., El-Haramein, F.J., Nkkoul, H. and Rihavi, S., 1986. Crop quality evaluation methods and guidelines. ICARDA Technical Manual No 14, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria.
Yuksel, M., 1969. Research on sunn pest (Eurygaster integriceps put.) damage and compared with wheat stinkbug (Aelia rostrata boh.) damage. Yenidesen Press, Ankara, Turkey.