Main Article Content
regression analysis, microcapsules, retention efficiency
Cardamom essential oil (CEO) was microencapsulated in different materials; gum Arabic (GA), whey protein isolate (WPI) or their combinations (WPI+GA) at different mixing proportions; 1:1 and 3:1, respectively by using spray drying procedure. The stability of the encapsulated oil was evaluated by determining the concentration of encapsulated oil during storage at two temperatures (7 and 25 °C). Results showed that regardless of the storage temperature, GA microcapsules had the highest microencapsulation efficiency and retention of CEO throughout the storage period. However WPI microcapsules had the lowest microencapsulation efficiency and retention of CEO. Both WPI+GA combinations showed intermediate microencapsulation efficiency and CEO retention compared to the single component matrices. Micrographs revealed that both WPI and GA microcapsules were spherical in shape. However, WPI microcapsules had broken surfaces, whereas the GA microcapsules had dented and wrinkled surfaces. In conclusion, GA microcapsules showed the best overall encapsulation properties than other treatments.
Burt, S., 2004. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods. International Journal of Food Microbiology 94: 223-253.
De Vos, P., Faas, M.M., Spasojevic, M. and Sikkema, J., 2010. Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components. International Dairy Journal20: 292-302.
Fang, X., Shima, M. and Adachi, S., 2005. Effect of drying conditions on the oxidation of linoleic acid encapsulated with gum Arabic by spray-drying. FoodScience and Technology Research 11: 380-384.
Finotelli, P.V., Leao, R. and Maria, H.M., 2005. Microencapsulation of ascorbic acid in maltodextrin and capsule using spray drying. Journal of Food Science 25: 352-356.
Given, J.R. and Peter, S., 2009. Encapsulation of flavors in emulsions for beverages. Current Opinion Colloid Interface Science 14: 43-47.
Jafari, S.M., Assadpoor, E., He, Y. and Bhandari, B., 2008. Encapsulation efficiency of food flavors and oils during spray drying. Drying Technology 26: 816-835.
Jun-Xia, X., Hai-Yan, Y. and Jain, Y., 2011. Microencapsulation of sweet orange oil by complex coacervation with soybean protein isolate/gum Arabic. Food Chemistry 125: 1267-1272.
Kanakdande, D., Bhosale, R. and Singhal, S.R., 2007. Stability of cumin oleoresin microencapsulated in different combination of gum arabic, maltodextrin and modified starch. Carbohydrate polymers67: 536-541.
Kaushik, V. and Roos, Y.H., 2007. Limonene encapsulation in freeze-drying of gum Arabic-sucrose-gelatin systems. LWT-Food Science and Technology 40: 1381-1391.
Krishnan, K., Bhosale, R. and Singhal, R.S., 2005. Microencapsulation of cardamom oileoresin: evaluation of blends of gum Arabic, maltodextrin and modified starch as wall materials. Carbohydrate Polymers 61: 95-102.
Kuang, S.S., Oliveira, J.C. and Crean, A.M., 2010. Microencapsulation as a tool for incorporating bioactive ingredients into food. Critical Review in Food Science and Nutrition 50: 951-968.
Landy, P., Druaux, C. and Voilley, A., 1995. Retention of aroma compounds by proteins in aqueous solution. Food Chemistry 54: 387-392.
Leach, G., Oliveira, G. and Morias, R., 1998. Spray drying of Dunaliella salina to produce a beta-carotene rich powder. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 20: 82-85.
Madene, A., Jacquot, M., Scher, J. and Desobry, S., 2006. Flavor encapsulation and controlled release International Journal of Food Science and Technology 41: 1-21.
Marongiu, B., Piras, A. and Porcedda, S., 2004. Comparative analysis of the oil and supercritical CO2 extract of Elettaria cardamomum(L.) Maton. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 52: 6278-6282.
Najafi, M.N., Kadkhodae. R. and Mortazavi, S.A., 2011. Effect of drying process and wall material on the properties of encapsulated cardamom oil. Food Biophysics 6: 68-76.
Qi, Z.H. and Xu, A., 1990. Starch-based ingredients for flavor encapsulation. Cereal Food World 44: 460-465.
Shaidi, F. and Han, X.Q., 1993. Encapsulation of food ingredients. Critical Review in Food Science and Nutrition 33: 501-547.
Soottitantawat, A., Bigeard, F., Yoshii, H., Furuta, T., Ohkawara, M. and Linkd, P., 2005. Influence of emulsion and powder size on the stability of encapsulated d-limonene by spray drying. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 6: 107-114.
Ubbink, J. and Kruger, J., 2006. Physical approaches for the delivery of active ingredients in foods. Trends in Food Science and Technology 17: 244-254.
Xie, Y., Wang, A., Lu, Q. and Hui, M., 2010. The effects of rheological properties of wall materials on morphology and particle size distribution of microcapsule. Czech Journal of Food Science 28: 433-439.