Main Article Content
food quality, honey, hydroxymethylfurfural, physicochemical, Iran
Honey samples supplied by Iranian beekeepers in different regions of Iran were analysed for moisture, acidity, diastase activity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), invert sugar, sucrose, ash and proline content. The mean values found were 18.35±5.6% for moisture, 24.45±12 meq/kg for acidity, 199.87±96.55 DN for diastase activity, 17.66±15.35 mg/kg for HMF, 37.31±17.13% for invert sugar, 2.62±1.9% for sucrose, 0.53±0.21% for ash, and 20.96±11.6 mg/kg for proline. The honey sample from Markazi province had the highest proline content and the highest diastase activity was observed in the honey sample from Isfahan. Honey samples from Mazandaran, Tabriz, and Ardebil had moisture contents that were greater than the EU standard (20%). The highest quality honey samples were from Kurdistan followed by Kermanshah, which showed higher quality in terms of moisture content, proline, HMF, and diastase activity.
Ahmed, J., Prabhu, S.T., Raghavan, G.S.V. and Ngadi, M., 2007. Physicochemical, rheological, calorimetric and dielectric behavior of selected Indian honey. Journal of Food Engineering 79: 1207-1213.
Ahmed, M., 2012. Anti-Aspergillus niger of eucalyptus honey influenced by thermal treatment. Open Access Scientific Reports 1: 175.
Ajlouni, S. and Sujirapinyokul, P., 2010. Hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde and amylase contents in Australian honey. Food Chemistry 119: 1000-1005.
Al-Khalifa, A.S. and Al-Arify, I.A., 1999. Physicochemical characteristics and pollen spectrum of some Saudi honeys. Food Chemistry 67: 21-25.
Anupama, D., Bhat, K.K. and Sapna, V.K., 2003. Sensory and Physico-chemical properties of commercial samples of honey. Food Research International 36: 183-191.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 1990. Official methods of analysis. AOAC, Arlington, TX, USA.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 2005. Proline in honey. AOAC, Arlington, TX, USA.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 2012. Determination of ash in animal feed. Journal of AOAC International 95: 1392-1397.
Azeredo, L.D.C., Azeredo, M.A.A., De Souza, S.R. and Dutra, V.M.L., 2003. Protein contents and physicochemical properties in honey samples of Apis mellifera of different floral origins. Food Chemistry 80: 249-254.
Bartáková, K., Dra?ková, M., Borkovcová, I. and Vorlová, L., 2011. Impact of microwave heating on hydroxymethylfurfural content in Czech honeys. Czech Journal Food Science 29: 328-336.
Bogdanov, S., Lüllmann, C., Martin, P., Von der Ohe, W., Russmann, H., Vorwohl, G., Persano Oddo, L., Sabatini, A.-G., Marcazzan, G.L. and Piro, R., 1999. Honey quality and international regulatory standards: review by the international honey commission. Bee World 80: 61-69.
Bogdanov, S., Martin, P. and Lullmann, C., 2002. Harmonised methods of the international honey commission. Swiss Bee Research Centre FAM, Liebefeld, Switzerland.
Cantarelli, M.A., Pellerano, R.G., Marchevsky, E.J. and Camiña, J.M., 2008. Quality of honey from Argentina: study of chemical composition and trace elements. The Journal of Argentine Chemical Society 96: 33-41.
Codex Alimentarius, 2001. Codex standard 12-1981 – Codex standard for honey. Codex Secretariat, FAO, Rome, Italy.
Costa, L.S.M., Albuquerque, M.L.S., Trugo, L.C., Quinteiro, L.M.C., Barth, O.M., Ribeiro, M. and De Maria, C.A.B., 1999. Determination of non-volatile compounds of different botanical origin Brazilian honeys. Food Chemistry 65: 347-352.
Devillers, J., Morlot, M., Pham-Delegue, M.H. and Dore, J.C., 2004. Classification of monofloral honeys based on their quality control data. Food Chemistry 86: 305-312.
Esti, M., Panfili, G., Marconi, E. and Trivisonno, M.C., 1997. Valorization of the honeys from the Molise region through Physico-chemical, organoleptic and nutritional assessment. Food Chemistry 58: 125-128.
European Commission (EC), 2001. Council Directive 2001/110/EC of 20 December 2001 relating to honey. Official Journal of the European Communities L10: 47-51.
Fallico, B., Arena, E., Verzera, A. and Zappalà, M., 2006. The European food legislation and its impact on honey sector. Accreditation and Quality Assurance 11: 49-54.
Finola, M.S., Lasagno, M.C. and Marioli, J.M., 2007. Microbiological and chemical characterization of honeys from Central Argentina. Food Chemistry 100: 1649-1653.
Gomes, S., Dias, L.G., Moreira, L.L., Rodrigues, P. and Estevinho, L., 2010. Physicochemical, microbiological and antimicrobial properties of commercial honeys from Portugal. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48: 544-548.
Guler, A., Bakan, A., Nisbet, C. and Yavuz, O., 2007. Determination of important biochemical properties of honey to discriminate pure and adulterated honey with sucrose (Saccharum officinarum L.) syrup. Food Chemistry 105: 1119-1125.
Hermosín, I., Chicón, R.M. and Cabezudo, M.D., 2003. Free amino acid composition and botanical origin of honey. Food Chemistry 83: 263-268.
Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI), 1998. Honey, specifications and test methods. ISIRI, Teheran, Iran.
Islam, A., Khalil, I., Islam, N., Moniruzzaman, M., Mottalib, A., Sulaiman, S.A. and Gan, S.H., 2012. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Bangladeshi honeys stored for more than one year. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12: 177.
Iurlina, M.O. and Fritz, R., 2005. Characterization of microorganisms in Argentinean honeys from different sources. International Journal of Food Microbiology 105: 297-304.
Kahraman, T., Buyukunal, S.K., Vural, A. and Altunatmaz, S.S., 2010. Physico-chemical properties in honey from different regions of Turkey. Food Chemistry 123: 41-44.
Kirs, E., Pall, R., Martverk, K. and Laos, K., 2011. Physicochemical and melissopalynological characterization of Estonian summer honeys. Procedia Food Science 1: 616-624.
Kretavicius, J., Kurtinaitiene, B., Racys, J. and ?eksteryte, V., 2010. Inactivation of glucose oxidase during heat-treatment de-crystallization of honey. Z?emdirbyste? (Agriculture) 97: 115-122.
Lay-Flurrie, K., 2008. Honey in wound care: effects, clinical application and patient benefit. British Journal of Nursing 17: S30-S36.
Mahmoudi, R., Zare, P., Tajik, H., Shadfar, S. and Nyiazpour, F., 2012. Biochemical properties and microbial analysis of honey from north-western regions of Iran: seasonal effects on physicochemical properties of honey. African Journal of Biotechnology 11: 10227-10231.
Mateo, R. and Bosch-Reig, F., 1998. Classification of Spanish unifloral honeys by discriminant analysis of electrical conductivity, color, water content, sugars, and pH. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46: 393-400.
Meda, A., Lamien, C.E., Romito, M., Millogo, J. and Nacoulma, O.G., 2005. Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents in Burkina fasan honey, as well as their radical scavenging activity. Food Chemistry 91: 571-577.
Mehryar, L., Esmaiili, M. and Hassanzadeh, A., 2013. Evaluation of some physicochemical and rheological properties of Iranian honeys and the effect of temperature on its viscosity. American-Eurasian Journal Agricultural & Environmental Sciences 13: 807-819.
Moniruzzaman, M., Sulaiman, S.A., Khalil, M.I. and Gan, S.H., 2013. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of sourwood and other Malaysian honeys: a comparison with manuka honey. Chemistry Central Journal 7: 138.
Moniruzzaman, M., Yung An, C., Rao, P.V., Hawlader, M.N.I., Azlan, S.A.B.M., Sulaiman, S.A. and Gan, S.H., 2014. Identification of phenolic acids and flavonoids in monofloral honey from Bangladesh by high performance liquid chromatography: determination of antioxidant capacity. BioMed Research International 2014: 737490.
Moussa, A., Noureddine, D., Abdelmelek, M. and Saad, A., 2012. Antibacterial activity of various honey types of Algeria against pathogenic gram–negative bacilli: Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease 2: 211-214.
Ojeda de Rodríguez, G., Sulbarán de Ferrer, B., Ferrer, A. and Rodríguez, B., 2004. Characterization of honey produced in Venezuela. Food Chemistry 84: 499-502.
Ouchemoukh, S., Louaileche, H. and Schweitzer, P., 2007. Physicochemical characteristics and pollen spectrum of some Algerian honeys. Food Control 18: 52-58.
Rodriguez-Otero, J.L., Paseiro, P., Simal, J. and Cepeda, A., 1994. Mineral content of the honeys produced in Galicia (North-west Spain). Food Chemistry 49: 169-171.
?ahinler, N. and Gül, A., 2004. Biochemical composition of sunflower and high plateau honeys [Turkish]. In: Proceedings of the 4th Ulusal Zootekni Bilim Kongresi, 1-3 September 2004, Süleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey, pp. 217-218.
Sancho, M.T., Muniategui, S., Huidobro, J.F. and Simal Lozano, J., 1992. Aging of honey. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 40: 134-138.
Saxena, S., Gautam, S. and Sharma, A., 2010. Physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of some Indian honeys. Food Chemistry 118: 391-397.
Terrab, A., Díez, M.J. and Heredia, F.J., 2002. Characterisation of Moroccan unifloral honeys by their physicochemical characteristics. Food Chemistry 79: 373-379.
White, J.W. and Doner, L.W., 1980. Honey composition and properties. Beekeeping in the United States Agriculture Handbook 335: 82-91.