Main Article Content
Open top chambers (OTCs), growth characteristics, grain yield, Zea mays L, Oryza sativa L
To assess the effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) on growth and yield in maize and rice, an experiment was carried out in open top chambers (OTCs) at different atmospheric CO2 concentration treatments (550 μmol/mol, T1; 750 μmol/mol, T2 and a control, CK) in Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. Our results indicated that the plant height, leaf area index (LAI), Soil and Plant Analyzer Development (SPAD) and net photosynthesis (NPn) of the maize (Zhengdan 958) and rice (Huaidao 5) at three development stages under the increasing [CO2] followed the order of CK <T1<T2. The growth indexes of two crop cultivars showed no significant differences nor did they show significant differences at certain development stages among the three CO2 treatments. The growth durations of maize and rice were delayed due to the elevated [CO2] treatments individually, but the impact before jointing was slightly greater than that after jointing. The above-ground biomass in maize was increased by 6.70–10.10%, and the above-ground biomass in rice was increased by 8.98–13.74% (P < 0.05) under the elevated [CO2] treatments. Maize yields were increased by 5.26% and 11.45%, and rice yields were increased by 19.76% and 24.43% under the T1 and T2 treatments. Other yield components of two crop cultivars were enhanced accordingly under high [CO2] treatments. The kernels per spike and crop yield showed significant differences between two high [CO2] plots and CK (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences for other yield components (P > 0.05).
Ashish, K. C., Rajeev, N. B., Madan,P.S., Divya, S.,Sadhana, M. and Krishna, SV. Jagadish.,2017. Elevated CO2 and heat stress interactions affect grain yield, quality and mineral nutrient composition in rice under field conditions. Field Crops Research 206: 149-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2017.02.018
Bishop,K.A., Leakey, A.D.B. and Ainsworth, E.A., 2015.How seasonal temperature or water inputs affect the relative response of C3 crops to elevated [CO2]: a global analysis of open top chamber and free air CO2 enrichment studies. Food and Energy Security 3:33-45. https://doi.org/10.1002/fes3.44
Bunce, J. A.,2014.Corn growth response to elevated CO2 varies with the amount of nitrogen applied. American Journal of Plant Sciences 5:306-312. https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2014.53042
Bussotti,F., Desotgiu, R., Cascio, C., Strasser, R.J., Gerosa, G. and Marzuoli, R.,2007.Photosynthesis responses to ozone in young trees of three species with different sensitivities, in a 2-year open-top chamber experiment (Curno, Italy). Physiologia Plantarum 130:122-135. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2007.00894.x
Cai, C., Yin, X.Y., He, S.Q., Jiang, W.Y., Si, C.F., Struik, P.C., Luo, W.H., Li, G., Xie, Y.T., Xiong, Y. and Pan, G.X., 2016.Responses of wheat and rice to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated CO2 and temperature in FACE experiments. Global Change Biology 22:856-874. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13065
Cheng, W.G., Sakai, H., Yagi, K. and Hasegawa, T., 2009.Interactions of elevated [CO2] and night temperature on rice growth and yield. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 149:51-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2008.07.006
Cure, J.D. and Acock, B., 1986.Crop responses to carbon dioxide doubling: A literature survey. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 38:127-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1923(86)90054-7
Figueiredo, N., Carranca, C., Trindae, H., Pereira, J., Goufo, P., Coutinho, J., Marques, P., Maricato, R. and
Varnenes, A.D.,2015. Elevated carbon dioxide and temperature effects on rice yield, leaf greenness and phenological
stages duration. Paddy and Water Environment 13:313-324. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10333-014-0447-x
Gao, J., Hao, X. Y.Ju. H., Li, Y.C. and Lin, Erda.,2012.Effect of elevated [CO2] on photosynthetic pigment contents and photosynthesis of summer soybean. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin 28:47-52.
Hao, X.Y., Han, X., Lam, S. K.，Wheeler, T., Ju, H., Wang, H.R., Li, Y.C. and Lin, E.D., 2012.Effects of fully open-air [CO2] elevation on leaf ultrastructure，photosynthesis，and yield of two soybean cultivars. Photosynthetica 50:362-370. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11099-012-0043-5
Heagle, A.S., Body, D.E. and Heck W.W.,1973. An open-top field chamber to assess the impact of air pollution on plants. Journal of Environmental Quality 2:365-368. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq1973.00472425000200030014x
IPCC., Climate change 2013, the physical science basis, working group I contribution of to the fifth assessment
report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, summary for policymakers. In: Stocker, T.F., Qin, D.,
Plattner, G.K., Tignor, M.M.B., Allen, S.K., Boschung, J., Nauels A., Xia Y., Bex V. and Midgley, P.M. (eds)., Cambridge University Press. Cambridge and New York 9-16.
Jiang, Y.L., Yao, Y.G., Zhang, Q. G., Yue, W., Chen, T. P. and Fan, L.L.,2006. Changes of photosynthetic pigment contents in soybean under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Crop Research 2:144-146.
Jing, L.Q., Zhao, X.Y., Zhou, N., Qian, X. Q., Wang, Y. X., Zhu, J. G., Wang, Y. L. and Yang, L.X., 2017.Effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on photosynthetic diurnal variation characteristics of hybrid rice: a FACE study. Acta Ecologica Sinica 37:2033-2044. https://doi.org/10.5846/stxb201509261974
Kim, H.Y., Lieffering, M., Kobayashi, K., Okada, M., Mitchell, M.W. and Gumpertz, M., 2003. Effects of free air CO2 enrichment and nitrogen supply on the yield of temperate paddy rice crops. Field Crops Research 83:261-270. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(03)00076-5
Kimball, B.A., Kobayashi, K. and Bindi, M., Responses of agricultural crops to free air CO2 enrichment. 2002. Advances in Agronomy 77:293-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(02)77017-X
Krishnan, P., Swain, D. K., Bhaskar, B.C., Nayak, S.K. and Dash, R.N.,2007. Impact of elevated CO2 and temperature on rice yield and methods of adaptation as evaluated by crop simulation studies. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 122:233-242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2007.01.019
Lai, S.K., Zhuang, S.T., Wu, Y.Z., Wang, Y.X., Zhu, J.G., Yang, L.X.and Wang, Y.L.,2015. Impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature on growth and development of super rice.Chinese Journal of Ecology 34:1253-1262.
Leadley, P.W. and Drake, B.G., 1993.Open top chambers for exposing plant canopies to elevated CO2 concentration and for measuring net gas exchange. Vegetatio 104-105: 3-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00048141
Leakey, A.D.B., 2009. Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and the future of C4 crops for food and
fuel. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 276:2333-2343. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2008.1517
Liu, C., Hu, Z.H., Chen, J., Liu, X.M., Yu, L.F., Sun, W.J. and Chen, S.T., 2018.Effects of elevated CO2 concentration levels on photosynthetic characteristics of rice. Ecology and Environmental Sciences 27:246-254.
Liu, H.J., Yang, L.X., Huang, J.Y., Dong, G.C., Zhu, J.G., Liu, G. and Wang, Y.L., 2009. Effect of free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) on yield formation of Indica rice cultivar Yangdao 6. Journal of Agro-environment science 28:299-304.
Long, S.P., Ainsworth, E.A., Leakey, A.D.B., Nösberger, J. and Ort, D.R., 2006.Food for thought: lower-than-expected crop yield stimulation with rising CO2 concentrations. Science 312:1918-21. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1114722
Manderscheid, R., Erbs, M. and Weigel, H. J., 2012. Interactive effects of free-air CO2 enrichment and drought stress on maize growth. European Journal of Agronomy 43:97-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2012.05.011
Meng, F.C., Zhang, J.H., Hao, C., Zhou, Z.M., Li, H., Liu, D., Wang, K. and Zhang, H., 2015. Effects of elevated CO2 and different irrigation on photosynthetic parameters and yield of maize in Northeast China(in Chinese). Acta Ecologica Sinica 35:2126-2135. https://doi.org/10.5846/stxb201306041336
Meng, F.C., Zhang, J.H. and Yao. F.M., 2014.Interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration and increasing precipitation on yield and growth development in maize.Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology 38:1064-1073. https://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1258.2014.00100
Oikawa, S.,Okada, M. and Hikosaka, K., 2013. Effects of elevated CO2 on leaf area dynamics in nodulating and non-nodulating soybean stands. Plant and Science 373: 627-639. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-013-1826-6
Sadras, V.O., Bubner, R. and Moran, M. A.,2012. A large-scale, open-top system to increase temperature in realistic vineyard conditions. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 154-155:187-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.11.005
Shaw, M.R., Zavaleta, E.S., Chiariello, N.R., Cleland, E.E., Mooney, H.A. and Field, C.B., 2002.Grassland responses to global environmental changes suppressed by elevated CO2. Science 298:1987-1990. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1075312
Shen, S.B., Zhang, D.H., Yang, K.F., Wang, Y.X., Zhu, J.G., Yang, L.X. and Y.L. Wang., 2016. Effect of elevated surface layer ozone concentration on grain quality of two rice cultivars-A FACE study.Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture 24:231-242.
Shu, K.L., Chen, D.L., Rob, N. and Roger, A., 2012. Does phosphorus stimulate the effect of elevated [CO2] on growth and symbiotic nitrogen fixation of grain and pasture legumes? Crop and Pasture Science 63:53-62. https://doi.org/10.1071/CP11296
Sun, J.W., Zhao, T.H., Fu, Y., Zhao, Y.X. and Shi, Y., 2009. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on photo-physiological characteristics of maize leaves(in Chinese). Journal of Maize Sciences 17:81-85.
Tan, Z.B., Shen, L.S., Kuang, H.C., Lu, C.F., Chen, Y., Zhou, K.D.and Zhu, L.H., 1996.Identification of QTLs for lengthes of the top internodes and other traits in rice and analysis of their genetic effects. Acta Genetica Sinica 23:439- 446.
Van, D. A., Kropff, M. J. and Haverkort, A. J., 2001.Modeling temperature and radiation driven leaf area expansion in the contrasting crops potato and wheat. Field Crops Research 72:119-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(01)00169-1
Wan, Y.F., You S.C., Li, Y.E., Wang, B., Gao, Z.Q., Qin,X.B. and Liu, S.,2014. Applied effect of improved open-top chamber on simulation in situ of elevating air temperature and CO2 concentration in early rice field. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 30:123-130.
Wang, D.R., Bunce, J.A., Tomecek, M.B.,Gealy, D., Mcclung, A., 2016.Mccouch, S.R. and Ziska, L.H., Evidence for divergence of response in Indica, Japonica and wild rice to high CO2 × temperature interaction. Global Change Biology 22:2620-2632. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13279
Wang,Q.L., Jin, K.P. and Cao,J.J., 2018.Effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration enhancement on photosynthetic
physiological indexes and yield of Maize leaves. Journal of Shanxi Agricultural Sciences,2018,46,12,2051- 2053,2061.
Xie, X,J. , Li, R.Y., Zhang,Y.H., Shen, S.H. and Bao, Y.X., 2018. Effect of elevated [CO2] on assimilation, allocation of nitrogen and phosphorus by maize (Zea Mays L.). Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 49:1-13. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2018.1448413
Xie, L.Y., Sun, X., Zhao, H.L., Feng, Y.X. and Jiang, L., 2015. Responses of flag leaf photosynthetic pigments at late growth stage and rice yield components to elevated CO2 under FACE system. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture 23:425-31.
Xie, XJ., Zhang, Y.H., Wang, L., Yang, X.H., Yu, Q., and Bao, Y.X., 2017. Effect of asymmetric warming on rice (Oryza sativa) growth characteristics and yield components under a free air temperature increase apparatus. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 87:1384-1390.
Yang, L.X., Huang, J.Y., Yang, H.J., Dong, G.C., Liu,G., Zhu, J.G. and Wang, Y.L., 2006.Seasonal changes in the effects of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) on dry matter production and distribution of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Field Crops Research 98:12-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2005.11.003
Yang, L.X., Wang, Y.X., Zhu, J.G., Toshihiro, H. and Wang, Y.L., 2010. What have we learned from 10 years of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)experiments on rice Growth and development? Acta Ecologica Sinica 306:1573-1585．
Yao,Y.C., Wang,S.H.and Kong, Y., 2007.Characteristics of photosynthesis mechanism in different peach species under low light intensity. Scientia Agricultural Sinica 40: 855-863.
Zhang,K., Wang, R.Y., Wang, H.L., Zhao, H., Qi, Y., Zhao, F.N., Chen, F. and Lei, J.,2017. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on growth and yield of Spring wheat based on observational experiment in semi-arid area.Journal of Arid Meteorology 35:306-312.